Go Much deeper in your Carbs, Fat Protein Intake with this New Macronutrient Feature


Peter Attia, M.D. on Macronutrient Thresholds for Longevity and Performance, Cancer and More

Video taken from the channel: FoundMyFitness


Eating Precisely: Merging Nutrition with Individualized Factors to Optimize Metabolic Health

Video taken from the channel: University of California Television (UCTV)


Functional Approach to Ketogenic Diet | Mark Hyman, MD

Video taken from the channel: Cleveland Clinic


Dr. Benjamin Bikman ‘Insulin vs. Glucagon: The relevance of dietary protein’

Video taken from the channel: Low Carb Down Under


Dr. Stephen Phinney ‘Troubleshooting the Ketogenic Diet for Optimal Weight and Health’

Video taken from the channel: Low Carb Down Under


Macros and The Keto Calculator

Video taken from the channel: RuledMe


Dr. Ron Rosedale ‘The Early Ancestral Connection Between Protein, Cancer, Aging and TOR’

Video taken from the channel: Low Carb Down Under

Go Deeper on Your Carbs, Fat & Protein Intake with Our New Macronutrient Feature. Fat & Protein Intake with Our New Macronutrient Feature. by Glennis Coursey. July 18, 2016. and then realize you were nowhere near your macronutrient goals.

This feature makes it easier to know when you’re off track and adjust course. Overall, each macronutrient is important for health and wellbeing no matter what one’s goals may be. Cutting out one or more macronutrient groups for an extended period of time can be damaging to the body and is unnecessary for long-term health.

Structure each meal by aiming to have a protein, fat and carbohydrate and you should be good to go!Fat is often depicted as a villain or hero.The truth is, like carbohydrates, there are good sources of fat, such as monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fats and omega-3s, all of which you’ll find in. Seek out low-fat chocolate milk or a protein shake, then plan for a non-starchy, fiber-rich meal within 1-2 hours after a workout.

Protein. Like carbohydrates and fat, protein is a macronutrient the body needs in relatively large amounts to grow, develop, and function properly. Fat is the secondary fuel source for our body after carbohydrates. When we have depleted our muscles carbohydrates, fat based energy becomes available.

In terms of the right amount of fat for you, it varies based on your age, weight, height, etc. A good rule of thumb is that fat should not be more than 30% of your total calories. Daily Intake Current recommendations are that less than 30% of your daily caloric intake should come from fat with no more than 10% of your daily intake from saturated fats. As part of the total fat intake, adults should consume 1.1-1.6 grams of omega-3 fatty acids from. Daily Protein Intake (in Calories) = 112.5 grams of protein x 4 Calories per gram = 450 Calories from protein.

Step 3 – Fats: Decide what percentage of your diet will be fat; select a percentage between 15% and 35%. Multiply this percentage by your TDEE to get your fat intake in Calories. Then divide by four (as with carbs, there are four calories per gram of protein) to get your daily recommended protein intake—in this example, 156 grams.

3. Fill In the Gap with Fat Content. Once you’ve determined your ideal carb and protein intakes, fill in the remaining gap with fat. (There are nine calories in one gram of fat.). For those primarily interested in cutting calories from carbohydrates, a 1,200-calorie diet with 45% of calories from carbohydrates would provide 135 grams of carbohydrates, thus meeting the RDA of 130 grams.

Go below that and it becomes incredibly difficult to hit your daily fiber goal (which also helps with satiety) and you may feel more sluggish during workouts. Macro calculator online: estimate the macronutrients you need per day. Free macronutrient calculator for the macro balance of your diet: proteins, carbs and fats. Learn about the three major macronutrients, their proportions in different diets, and what an optimal macro balance is.

Great calorie macro calculator for keeping an IIFYM diet (If It Fits Your Macro).

List of related literature:

The IOM’s recommendations on the macronutrient composition of U.S. diets suggest that 10–35% of dietary energy should be derived from protein, 20–35% from fat, and the 40–65% from carbohydrates.

“Human Biology: An Evolutionary and Biocultural Perspective” by Sara Stinson, Barry Bogin, Dennis H. O'Rourke
from Human Biology: An Evolutionary and Biocultural Perspective
by Sara Stinson, Barry Bogin, Dennis H. O’Rourke
Wiley, 2012

In the meantime, we’ll highlight that the keto macronutrient mix is approximately 70 percent or more fat, 20 percent protein, and less than 10 percent carb.

“Eat Rich, Live Long: Mastering the Low-Carb & Keto Spectrum for Weight Loss and Longevity” by Ivor Cummins, Jeffry Gerber
from Eat Rich, Live Long: Mastering the Low-Carb & Keto Spectrum for Weight Loss and Longevity
by Ivor Cummins, Jeffry Gerber
Victory Belt Publishing, 2018

Shifting away from a high-fat, high-protein intake toward one that is higher in carbohydrate is not easy, however, and may result in inadequate energy consumption because of the lower caloric density of carbohydrate compared with fat.

“Advanced Sports Nutrition” by Dan Benardot
from Advanced Sports Nutrition
by Dan Benardot
Human Kinetics, Incorporated, 2011

and the change in the macronutrient profile is profound: 53.1 percent carbs, 4.4 percent protein, and 42.5 percent fat.

“The Forks Over Knives Plan: How to Transition to the Life-Saving, Whole-Food, Plant-Based Diet” by Alona Pulde, Matthew Lederman, Marah Stets, Brian Wendel, Darshana Thacker
from The Forks Over Knives Plan: How to Transition to the Life-Saving, Whole-Food, Plant-Based Diet
by Alona Pulde, Matthew Lederman, et. al.
Atria Books, 2017

Too many saturated fats from aggressive addition of butter or MCT oils (keto folks, I’m talking to you) can decrease cellular signaling markers and potentially limit hypertrophy.

“Peak: The New Science of Athletic Performance That is Revolutionizing Sports” by Marc Bubbs
from Peak: The New Science of Athletic Performance That is Revolutionizing Sports
by Marc Bubbs
Chelsea Green Publishing, 2019

And to prepare your mind, review the recommended macronutrient goals in chapter 4.

“Keto Quick Start: A Beginner's Guide to a Whole-Foods Ketogenic Diet with More Than 100 Recipes” by Diane Sanfilippo
from Keto Quick Start: A Beginner’s Guide to a Whole-Foods Ketogenic Diet with More Than 100 Recipes
by Diane Sanfilippo
Victory Belt Publishing, 2019

Altogether, our competitor’s starting daily macronutrient intake is 220 grams of protein, 205 grams of carbohydrates, and 55 grams of fat.

“Bodybuilding: The Complete Contest Preparation Handbook” by Peter J. Fitschen, Cliff Wilson
from Bodybuilding: The Complete Contest Preparation Handbook
by Peter J. Fitschen, Cliff Wilson
Human Kinetics, Incorporated, 2019

Thus, reducing fat provides an optimal macronutrient target since it has more than twice the energy content of either protein or carbohydrate.

“Handbook of Obesity, Two-Volume Set” by George A. Bray, Claude Bouchard
from Handbook of Obesity, Two-Volume Set
by George A. Bray, Claude Bouchard
CRC Press, 2019

Also, some dietary programs continue to glorify grains and demonize fat, ignoring the NAS guidelines and instead recommending a 60-30-10 ratio of carbs, protein, and fats.

“No Grain, No Pain: A 30-Day Diet for Eliminating the Root Cause of Chronic Pain” by Peter Osborne, Olivia Bell Buehl
from No Grain, No Pain: A 30-Day Diet for Eliminating the Root Cause of Chronic Pain
by Peter Osborne, Olivia Bell Buehl
Atria Books, 2016

Positive changes in macronutrient composition such as a reduction in fat intake, together with an increased intake of complex carbohydrates, will at the same time lead to an increase in the intake of micronutrients.

“Youth Soccer: From Science to Performance” by Gareth Stratton, Thomas Reilly, Dave Richardson, A. Mark Williams
from Youth Soccer: From Science to Performance
by Gareth Stratton, Thomas Reilly, et. al.
Routledge, 2004

Alexia Lewis RD

Registered Dietitian Nutritionist and Certified Heath Coach who believes life is better with science, humor, and beautiful, delicious, healthy food.

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  • There’s one thing Dr. Bikman doesn’t show though… the effect of a high whole plant foods diet that is comprised of low protein plant foods (low or no animal protein) and low (but adequate essential omega 6 and 3) fat on the insulin:glucagon ratio. THAT’S what I want to see, considering some of the longest lived people in the world (the Okinawans circa 1949, Loma Linda SDA, etc.) eat/ate that way. I will say, however, that is is quite apparent from this lecture that the combination of high refined sugars and high protein is what actually causes insulin resistance due to the massive rise in the insulin:glucagon ratio from chronically eating that way. Add in the fried omega 6 seed oils, and it probably seals the deal on the obesity and type 2 diabetes epidemic.

  • A more recent video here:
    mTOR, Protein ��& Cancer: new science MIT’s David Sabatini

  • Just because we are “blunting” the rates of heart disease with treatments after the fact, let’s be clear that the research unquestionably indicatesthat lifestyle, including diet and exerciser, teduction of stress and exposure to toxins will impact your phenotypical expression of cardiovascular disease despite your genetics. Not sure where Attia is getting his information on this point.

  • Ketones May stimulate cancer cells to grow, but who cares? Does it CAUSE cancer? Does it CAUSE those initial mutations that trigger unregulated growth? Isn’t that what cancer is? Uncontrollable pathological cell growth due to genomic mutations triggering uncontrollable cell growth? I don’t understand why people would ever suggest a lack of IGF or ketones or other metabolic changes should prevent cancer growth? Once a cancer cell population has developed those mutations are already there causing uncontrollable growth I don’t understand why this is such a common paradigm I’m very confused about this can someone explain this? You need to destroy the cells through the immune system or radiation or chemotherapeutic that kill those initial cancer populations..

    But everything else this person states seems to me is 100% dead on and makes perfect sense from a biochemistry point of view

  • Peter mistakenly did not recognize the microbiom and the affect of intestinal flora on the immune system. It seems that he is still thinking the old way….that carbs vs. protein and insulin are the only formula for good healthy eating. 18:00 And his ant comment is an irrelevant analogy. And I think Peter has allot of mucin affecting his ability to focus.

  • I wonder if they have taken into account the quality of protein? Seems to me that fattening animals with grains is the reason why meat makes people develop health problems in the end.
    People who eat grass fed meat seems to enjoy better qu quality of life.

  • Nice speech but don’t exaggerate, it’s more important to totally get rid of carbohydrates, than limit the protein. Carbs should never be part of our diet anymore, unless the traces found in meat. Don’t compare mouse with human, we are carnivores

  • What kind of protein? He doesn’t say whether the studies were on plant protein or animal protein. Shit, with his recommendations if it’s animal protein or just protein in general that is the problem if i eat more than one steak a day i’m consuming excess protein! Remember when tribes would kill animals and just eat without worrying about all this and they didn’t have nearly as much obesity or disease as we have now? There needs to be a study done on humans, one group with animal protein and one group with plant protein. One steak isn’t enough for the day for me.

  • SO many FOOD GURUS out there, and most of them don’t have enough information or education about how our body works, as well as Big Food and Big Pharma Trolls spreading misinformation. They are ruining Keto and Paleo diets by telling people it’s OK to eat garbage. KFC is NOT Keto no matter how much you want it to be. These two diets are meant to teach us to eat healthy delicious healing diets, KFC is FAR from it. Just because it’s meat and it’s fried in Fat, it does not make it Keto, Hamburgers from a fast food place are also not keto, even if you just put them in a lettuce wrap, because the meat is from sick animals and full of pesticides and disease.

    You have to pay attention to what is healing and good for you. Franken chickens, or beef, from factory farms, fried in horrible, rancid, highly processed oil from GMO crops, ARE DEADLY.

    You really need to learn to distinguish the Huge difference for your life and your families. <3

  • I would agree with the premise that nature cares more about reproduction than longevity.

    However that is the only thing from this presentation that I totally agree on.

    1. Calorie restriction and IGF-1 levels

    Dr. Rosedale mentions the study done on mice and non-human primates which demonstrates that calorie restriction increases lifespan, lowers fat mass, insulin, IGF-1, body temperature, thyroid hormones and oxidative stress.

    The study didn’t mention protein intake. It focuses on pure calorie restriction in mice. But does it translate to humans?

    First of all, I disagree that low body temperature and low thyroid hormones is a desirable scenario for a person who wants to be active and live a fulfilling life. Dr. Rosedale states that it’s only thyroid hormones that went down, without a change in TSH. However for me it would indicate that instead of converting T4 the inactive hormone, into T3 the active thyroid hormone, the body converts T4 into reverse T3. This process happens not just in the times of famine to keep you from being active, but also during the inflammation or adrenal fatigue. The result of this is fatigue and sluggishness which is probably good for the times of famine but not if you want to live your live to the fullest.

    However more importantly, the above research on low calorie diet has been done on mice, not humans. Mice are very different from humans. We know that the hard way. Drug studies on mice very rarely translate to humans. Where some drugs work perfectly on mice without any major side effects they either don’t work on humans or create horrible life threatening side effects.

    And sure enough, there are studies showing that long term calorie restriction in humans doesn’t lower IGF-1.
    Here’s one: “Long-term effects of calorie or protein restriction on serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentration in humans” ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2673798/)

    “These findings demonstrate that, unlike in rodents, long-term severe CR (calorie restriction) does not reduce serum IGF-1 concentration and IGF-1: IGFBP-3 ratio in humans.”

    This study did conclude however that “protein intake is a key determinant of circulating IGF-1 levels in humans, and suggest that reduced protein intake may become an important component of anticancer and anti-aging dietary interventions.”

    There was another study of calorie restriction and aging markers done on humans which concluded: “We observed no clear evidence that CR (calorie restriction) as it is currently practiced in humans delays immune aging related to telomere length or T cell immunosenescent markers.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5389018/

    So calorie restriction works in rodents but doesn’t seem to do the same thing in humans.

    2. Link between low protein diet, IGF-1 levels, cancer and mortality in humans.

    Here again, it’s not so simple.

    There was a study entitled: “Low Protein Intake is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3988204/

    The researchers analysed data from 6,381 adults ages 50 and over. Here’s the summary of the study:

    “Mice and humans with Growth Hormone Receptor/IGF-1 deficiencies display major reductions in age-related diseases. Because protein restriction reduces GHR-IGF-1 activity, we examined links between protein intake and mortality. Respondents (n=6,381) aged 50–65 reporting high protein intake (20% or more of calories from proteins ) had a 75% increase in overall mortality and a 4-fold increase in cancer and diabetes mortality during an 18 year follow up period. These associations were either abolished or attenuated if the source of proteins was plant-based. Conversely, in respondents over age 65, high protein intake was associated with reduced cancer and overall mortality. ….These results suggest that low protein intake during middle age (less than 10% of calories from proteins) followed by moderate protein consumption (10–19% of calories from proteins), in old subjects may optimize healthspan and longevity.”

    So all we can conclude from this study is that if you are between 50 and 65 years old you would probably do better if you consumed about 10% of your calories coming from protein. But for those who are 65 and over, the moderate to high protein intake (10-20%) is better for survival. This may be because the stomach acid and overall absorption of amino acids reduces with age. Consequently you need more protein to do the same job.
    Research doesn’t tell us about the effect of protein consumption on the population younger than 50 years old.

    There is another study entitled: “Both low and high serum IGF-I levels associate with cancer mortality in older men.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23015658 It concluded the following:

    “CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that both low and high serum IGF-I levels are risk markers for increased cancer mortality in older men. Moreover, low IGF-I levels associate with increased CVD (cardiovascular disease) mortality.”

    So, the lower IGF-1 is not necessarily the better, at least in older men.

    Finally, there is a meta-analysis entitled: “Meta-analysis and dose-response metaregression: circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and mortality.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21795450

    “Twelve studies, with 14,906 participants, were included. Overall, risk of bias was limited. Mortality in subjects with low or high IGF-I levels was compared with mid-centile reference categories. All-cause mortality was increased in subjects with low as well as high IGF-I”.

    “CONCLUSIONS: Both low and high IGF-I concentrations are associated with increased mortality in the general population.”

    So the science on IGF-1 and mortality is not cut and dry. You want to have enough of it for the health of your brain cells, muscles and bones but not too much to promote the growth of malignant cells.

    Another study that was mentioned by Dr. Rosedale is the one where mice were fed with carbs ad libitum or as much as they wanted, at the same time restricting their protein intake to inhibit mTOR. The study didn’t focus on fats at all. The conclusion was that mice with the limited protein in their diets lived longer.

    I struggle to see how this diet can possibly be healthy for humans.

    Finally, if protein consumption was so well correlated with the increased risk of mortality, then we would see vegetarians and vegans living longer and enjoying a disease free state. But unfortunately this premise is not supported by studies.

    While early studies did show better survival for vegetarians and vegans, more recent and much higher-quality studies have found no difference in mortality rates between omnivores and vegetarians and vegans.

    One of the studies is “45 and Up Study” from Australia. The researchers did a much better job of controlling for confounding factors—like obesity, diabetes, smoking, drinking, and socioeconomic status—that would be likely to influence lifespan. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28040519

    The results of the study are summarised as follows: “We found no evidence that following a vegetarian diet, semi-vegetarian diet or a pesco-vegetarian diet has an independent protective effect on all-cause mortality.”

    There have been two meta-analyses (comprehensive reviews) of individual studies comparing mortality in vegetarians and omnivores. Both found no difference in total mortality between vegetarians and omnivores.

    The first was done in 2014. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016752731401290X

    It didn’t find any difference in mortality rates between vegetarians and meat eaters. Furthermore, it concluded that any benefit observed in previous analyses for vegetarian diets was driven by the SDA (Seventh-day Adventist Church) studies, which suffer from multiple confounding factors that weren’t adequately controlled for.

    The researchers say: “..while all of the SDA studies demonstrate significant reduction in all-cause mortality with vegetarian diet, this finding was not replicated in four of the non-Adventist studies.…

    ..In view of these inconsistent findings, we conclude that the benefits of vegetarian diet for reducing death and vascular events remain unproven”

    The second meta-analysis was published in 2017 and reviewed 96 studies. Although it did show a protective effect of a vegetarian diet on the incidence and/or mortality from ischemic heart disease (-25%) and incidence from total cancer (-8%) as well as a significant reduced risk (-15%) of incidence from total cancer for vegans, the risk for all-cause mortality and mortality from cancer didn’t differ from meat eaters. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26853923

    So, overall, while some studies show the protective effect of vegetarian diets on ischemic heart disease and some forms of cancer, there is no difference in all-cause mortality between vegetarians and meat eaters.

    Chriss Kresser wrote an excellent article about these studies and their conclusions.


  • Hi Dr Rosedale, thanks for the insights. Do you differentiate between animal proteins and plant proteins in relation to upregulating of mTOR? Does switching to Impossible or Beyond meat help?

  • Type 1 diabetic and 20g of carbs and 70g of protein keto diet here. I sometimes run up to 4.0-5.0mmol/L of ketones, but always with a decent blood glucose of between 3.5-5.5mmol/L. I feel fine when ketones go high like that, always hydrated and I have sodium in the form of salt with my water, and insulin always at hand. Dr Bernstein says high ketones do not matter if blood glucose is at the optimum range. Should I still be concerned?

  • Wondering what the thoughts are regarding CVI and swelling when too much sodium intake, I guess?

    Went on a binge eating Jack’s frozen pizza’s and ankles started swelling again. I use bottled and lately distilled water with my tea and half and half and am wondering what is the best supplement for the distilled or bottled water since is most likely demineralized?

    I had this happen before and I think is related to issues like with the U.S. Diplomats, Staff, Family and others in Cuba and China that came out well disclosed more-so in the CBS News 60 Minutes report on Sept. 1 st 2019: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/is-an-invisible-weapon-targeting-u-s-diplomats-60-minutes-2019-09-01/

    Even so, main question and concern is going to be how to get my mineral intake optimized in my known clean safe water source.
    Stretching exercises got the swelling down along with no more processed foods that have the high sodium, i.e. 500mg per serving as the worst was the Shin Ramyun Noodle Soup at 1970mg per 2 serving bag that I haven’t used in a few weeks since I noticed before this round was causing… though I didn’t notice the slight discoloration above the ankles like spider veins and like red/purple under the skin and the freckles that I assumed prior were from sand flea bites. Time to start up some calisthenics once this swelling has stabilized and I get rid of the discoloration. The warmth period went away, so that’s good. No edema now.

    http://dewdetectionprojects.blogspot.com/2019/12/went-to-pick-up-sears-ss16-for-some.html (probably can photograph this incident too as I just made two instructables, 450MHz Yagi and Spiral Conical Antenna the Form, for detecting and wondering if that irritated the remote operators)

    Reading this WHO document ( https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutrientschap12.pdf ) I’m thinking will be more cost effective to invest in some food or pharma grade minerals and supplement what’s not in the ratio of the Real Salt.

    This is what I got out of reading and am still working on narrow down though figured I’d note online for some feedback:

    The 1980 WHO report

    Salts are leached from the body under the influence of drinking water with a low TDS.

    Because adverse effects such as altered water-salt balance were observed not only in completely

    desalinated water but also in water with TDS between 50 and 75 mg/L, the team that prepared the

    1980 WHO report (3) recommended that the minimum TDS in drinking water should be 100

    mg/L. The team also recommended that the optimum TDS should be about 200-400 mg/L for

    chloride-sulphate waters and 250-500 mg/L for bicarbonate waters (WHO 1980). The

    recommendations were based on extensive experimental studies conducted in rats, dogs and

    human volunteers. Water exposures included Moscow tap water, desalinated water of

    approximately 10 mg/L TDS, and laboratory-prepared water of 50, 100, 250, 300, 500, 750, 1000,

    and 1500 mg/L TDS using the following constituents and proportions: Cl
    (40%), HCO3 (32%),
    SO4 (28%) / Na (50%), Ca (38%), Mg (12%). A number of health outcomes were investigated

    including: dynamics of body weight, basal and nitrogen metabolism, enzyme activity, water-salt

    homeostasis and its regulatory system, mineral content of body tissues and fluids, hematocrit, and

    ADH activity. The optimal TDS was associated with the lowest incidence of adverse effect,

    negative changes to the human, dog, or rat, good organoleptic characteristics and thirst-quenching

    properties, and reduced corrosivity of water.

    In addition to the TDS levels, the report (3)

    Based on the currently available data, various researchers have recommended that the

    following levels of calcium, magnesium, and water hardness should be in drinking water:

    • For magnesium, a minimum of 10 mg/L (33, 56) and an optimum of about 20-30 mg/L (49,



    • For calcium, a minimum of 20 mg/L (56) and an optimum of about 50 (40-80) mg/L (57,


    • For total water hardness, the sum of calcium and magnesium should be 2 to 4 mmol/L (37,

    50, 59, 60).

    At these concentrations, minimum or no adverse health effects were observed. The

    maximum protective or beneficial health effects of drinking water appeared to occur at the

    estimated desirable or optimum concentrations. The recommended magnesium levels were based

    on cardiovascular system effects, while changes in calcium metabolism and ossification were used

    as a basis for the recommended calcium levels. The upper limit of the hardness optimal range was

    derived from data that showed a higher risk of gall stones, kidney stones, urinary stones, arthrosis

    and arthropathies in populations supplied with water of hardness higher than 5 mmol/L.

    Long-term intake of drinking water was taken into account in estimating these

    concentrations. For short-term therapeutic indications of some waters, higher concentrations of

    these elements may be considered.

    All four Central European countries that became part

    of the EU in May 2004 have included the following requirements in their respective regulations

    but varying in binding power;

    • Czech Republic (2004): for softened water ≥ 30 mg/L calcium and ≥ 10 mg/L magnesium;

    guideline levels of 40-80 mg/L calcium and 20–30 mg/L magnesium (hardness as Σ Ca + Mg

    = 2.0 – 3.5 mmol/L).

    • Hungary (2001): hardness 50 – 350 mg/L (as CaO); minimum required concentration of 50

    mg/L must be met in bottled drinking water, new water sources, and softened and desalinated


    • Poland (2000): hardness 60–500 mg/L (as CaCO3).

    • Slovakia (2002): guideline levels > 30 mg/L calcium and 10 – 30 mg/L magnesium.

    The Russian technical standard Astronaut environment in piloted spaceships – general

    medical and technical requirements (64) defines qualitative requirements for recycled water

    intended for drinking in spaceships. Among other requirements, the TDS should range between

    100 and 1000 mg/L with minimum levels of fluoride, calcium and magnesium being specified by


    a special commission separately for each cosmic flight. The focus is on how to supplement

    recycled water with a mineral concentrate to make it “physiologically valuable” (65).

  • High carb, low fat diets have been shown to reduce healthcare costs by 40% in the USA. Yes, 40%, fact. Not a clinical study, a city: Albert Lea, Minnesota. See below “Blue Zones”. It’s so successful, it’s expanding to other cities/states across the USA.
    Diabetes does not correlate with sugar intake in the UK: https://ibb.co/3dq662q Diabetes does not correlate with sugar intake in the US/China: https://ibb.co/9s29qWQ Diabetes does correlate with fat intake: https://ibb.co/f27Hhxh Check out the Blue Zones low fat, high carb diets. Walter Willett, chair of the department of nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health, found the results “stunning”. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Buettner

  • have a Carb Coma after doing keto and youll realize why keto is better, carbs are good for the moment cause your brain just wants to store fat for winter, but too many carbs in todays society keep you tired sluggish and its a endless cycle with carbs, the feeling alone is better the bloat is gone when your low carb

  • Dr. Rosedale is wrong. My post-reproductive health HELPS my off-spring and that would have been even more so during earlier times when the clan was so important. Like so many hard scientists he fails to understand the importance of culture.

  • Thank you. You have connected a lot of dots. I am apple shape adipose, diabetic, hi bloodpressure etc. The whole show. My question is: i wonder if my hepatitis in early years have made my liver vulnerable. I ask because my diet is excellent according to your advice. Ah im on metformin

  • I have a seizure disorder that. I was born with and this keto diet has helped me to heel and. I feel good about watching theses videos on YouTube

  • Thanks for superp lecture. It is a very good practice for the speaker to repeat and to explain the question before attempting to provide an answer..

  • Still not comfortable about the build up of Uric acid on a all meat diet so I tend to lean towards fat as the main benefactor of the success story of a no carb diet

  • Even before this talk I switched my keto diet to be more meat based. Probably the main reason people on carnivore diets tend to get leaner quick.

  • Wow, That was one of the most informative talks on Keto I’ve heard. Learned a whole lot of things not mentioned elsewhere when discussing this topic

  • Two titans in the aggregation and dissemination of metabolic studies and aging research for potential clinical application. They should do this recorded presentation once every 12 months as an update. Excellent. Don’t you wish your doctor followed the Nerd Safari and the Found My Fitness podcasts?

  • The evolution bit is pure science fiction. Greatest event of evolution of life made up in imaginations. Who needs evidence when you can make stuff up.

  • Dr phinney, I have an awful feeling that because of the low fat eating that most women have been eating for the past three decades, especially while pregnant has given rise to all of these children with auto immune disease, I feel guilty but not culpable! I have three sons in their twenties, one with Crohn’s disease and all with varying degrees of depression and poor immune systems! SAD stupid American diet!

  • It would seem to me that mitochondrial health and the ability of mitochondria to produce energy efficiently (utilizing fat over glucose) would be an important contributor to health and longevity. Yet Rosedale seems to argue this is irrelevant, evidently because (specific) cancer cells are able to use ketones for energy. He puts everything in TOR because it predates the great oxygen effect (or so it would seem).

  • People, try custom keto diet! IT WORKS I have lost 49lbs since I started. Check how it works at customketo4u.com You tell them what food you like, what is your age, weight ets and they will give you 8 weeks custom keto meal plan tailored for you �� ��

  • I was pumped to see and hear this interview (I liked past interviews with both doctors), HOWEVER, after a while, Dr. Attia just came off as an arrogant medical encyclopedia. This is why so many people are struggling with addressing health issues because most doctors don’t know how to offer practical and simple solutions (if they really understand and have them). In regards to Dr. Patrick’s “following” of Dr. Mark Shigenaga, please don’t take this the wrong way, HOWEVER, I can’t take any health advice seriously coming from a man with a spare tire around his waist. If he has a severe medical issue that caused him to gain excess fat that he can’t lose, I apologize for my comment, but if not… Lastly, was this an interview for the public or an interview for each other?? The dialogue makes me think it was the latter. IJS.

  • I have been 4 weeks with a personalized #keto diet plan and I have lost 7 kilos and I have to confess that this is hard to believe, it is really amazing to see how my body is transformed into something that I feel proud instead of something that I always tried to hide.

  • If a person limits their calories to 1,000 per day then why would you need a keto diet? A person can lose weight on a regular diet at 1,600 calories a day, a 1,000 calories is not much food and it seems people would break they’er diets a lot faster. Just curious because i have started the keto and have had no results at 15 carbs a day.

  • How can you be on a high protein diet and still be in ketosis, as Rosedale states, when protein is anti-ketogenic. As I understand it, when you have a diet high (he never mentions % but surely he means over 30+%) in protein the liver through glycogenesis will produce carbohydrates which will knock you out of ketosis.

  • In the US, NoSalt by the French’s company (the yellow mustard people) is all potassium salts, but it tastes horrid. I either mix what I want for the day with one egg, cook it and choke it down, or dissolve it in warm water and toss it back like a shot. The egg is less traumatic-lol.

  • My only concern is that im eating to much protein. When i watch other people’s videos they are saying i need higher ratios of fat then the calculator is giving me.

  • The pathway from oaa to glucose goes via cytosolic malate. Does dietary malic acid (eg a supplement such as sugar free cloudy apple flavour drinks) inhibit ketone production by sustaining mitochondrial oaa during gluconeogenesis and what are the consequences?

  • Dr. Phinney (and Volek too!) is the best! His explanation on tachycardia was very interesting and I’ve never heard it explained this way before (and I’ve listened to hundreds of hours of lectures on keto). Thanks LCDU for consistently bringing quality keto information to the public.

  • Ketoginic is saving my life! I’m off two blood pressure pills since 2001 & thyroid I was told by my doctor I’d be on The rest of my life! And in 2011 I found out I have Philadelphia crom 22 leukemia I’m down 1/2 on that meds ” I stared Ketoginic life style aug 2015 wow how my life has changed I feel amazing ” I sleep like I’m 20 at 56 my energy is is amazing and only one side effect to the Ketoginic is you my lose weight! I’v tried for 32 years to lose and I’m down 49. Lbs since August! Life is good again ” I’ll never go back to the SAD diet!!!! Each week I feel better & better! And the doctors don’t say or ask any thing my blood work is great! They just don’t care how or why! They can’t make any money if we are not sick

  • Peter has brilliant and so funny capability to confuse Rhonda, who is not easy to be confused brilliant doctor. Both are among really the best promoters of healthy medicinal knowledge to the masses. Excellent interview, thank you Peter and Rhonda.

  • I found this study that shows high fat diet activates mTOR1C. Please help me understand difference. Appreciate your comment.
    Khamzina L, Veilleux A, Bergeron S, Marette A. Increased activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in liver and skeletal muscle of obese rats: possible involvement in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Endocrinology. 2005;146(3):1473–1481

  • Some analysis of what’s going on here: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1q6CIIEACYuRAC4AQ-A_OOFmyHqBYsEj31DoACvBv3JQ/edit?usp=sharing

  • Many times when a Q-A part is omitted or Heavily edited it is because there are things brought up that are contrary to the message…
    Rather than addressing these issues it is often more expedient to omit them.

  • Bullshit Attia, the gut is the goal and almost most of us know this. Serotonin? VegaS? RHONDA, PLEASE STAY ON THE GUT, IT IS THE ROOT OF ALL.

  • “nature” cares? “nature” doesn’t care? I guess that this talk may be pitched for mostly non-scientists but there is far too much personification of evolution by natural selection for my comfort level.

  • 36:18 interesting. I am ApoE e2/e4 and 49 years old. I starting eating ancestral diet at 45 years of age. A1C dropped from 10% down to 5%. Recently had my first ever CAC scan and it was 0 and my LDL-C is only 57. People with ApoE4 generally have high LDL especially eating a ketogenic / low carb diet like I am.. but my LDL-C is unusually low. I eat tons of land animal fat, cheese and eat very little fish.

  • Can you guys learn to just speak English glue clothes and what is all this stuff yours are saying explained what it means some of us don’t know not everybody

  • Excellent video…but you have to watch it twice and takes notes, this is the problem with an hour video, it becomes two hours plus another hour for notes…need short 15 minutes videos…

  • Dr Phinney is arguably THE Authority ( especially when it comes to answering questions which are not directly answered by research published thus far.) If you are interested in a 1 hr professional development investment you will not do better than this. This is ketosis 401 not 101. Kind Regards Dr John Stewart BVSc

  • I used this calculator and it suggested me to take:
    103g of fat/49g of protein/20g of carbs
    The problem is that doesn’t give 75% fat/ 25% protein and 5% of carbs as it should be in a ketogenic diet

  • I have Dystonia in all of my back muscles that I have Botox injections for every 90 days, Graves’ disease, Hashimotos, Thyroid Eye Disease, pain in the Iliac Crest on both hips. Should the Keto diet be able to help lessen my inflammation?

  • I appreciate the knowledge but you don’t have to honestly be so artificial and just pretentious when you’re saying the stuff. You are a human like the rest of us. How’s about trying to sound like the rest of us?!

  • Fruits and vegetables either are high oxalate (paradoxically low lectin) or if low oxalate then high in lectins. People have died from high oxalates and people become autoimmune with high lectin. Answer for these people, from an academic perspective is a carnivore diet.

  • I now go for walks early in the morning and I can’t wait to listen to talks like these on my phone while I walk. I’ve listened to this one a few times and I’m still not bored. I look forward to getting up now. I’ve being doing keto for some time now now. It’s helped me lose weight, get rid of anxiety and depression, improve mental clarity, focus and concentration, memory, arthritis and nerve pain. I’m not obsessed with food anymore. So many benefits. It’s just a shame I can’t get my family to listen or believe me when I try to tell them about what I’ve learnt over the years with low carb/keto eating.

  • New man crush! This man is changing lives. It’s tragic how the entities that we look to as our health care providers and dispensing the worst information imaginable. We are systemically and intentionally being made into sick, drug-addicted, life-long patients.

  • Just checked my numbers on the Rule me calculator. It says my fats should be 128 grams and protein 82 grams. Does that mean that in planning my menu’s, the fats and proteins need to be that high or can they be slightly lower?

  • Very interesting talk. As a complete ignoramus about this stuff, I have a probably stupid question.
    If a person eats a relatively high-carb AND high protein diet, would the negative effect be reduced if the person kept the two foods separate?
    E.g. a high carb meal in the morning, and then a high protein (and low carb) meal in the evening. Anyone able to answer this one?

  • This is making my head spin:(

    I just did went to the site and did my macros… but this is too scientific for me… i love this diet but the talk of counting and tracking is making me not wanna do it because i feel I’ll fail. Gonna keep researching a bit.

  • The Keto Calculator has never worked for me, it is FRUSTRATING. Each time, I enter info, hit ‘Calculate’ it takes me back to ‘how active are you on daily basis’. No matter what I enter, each time hitting calculate returns me to it???

  • What are some ways to lost crazy amounts of weight? I read lots of great opinions on the internet about how Custokebon Secrets will help you lost tons of weight. Has anybody tested out this popular fat burn diet plan?

  • Im on carnivore diet for a month with great results….I had some problems with energy levels but with sufficient fat intake and timing I feel great!

  • This does not make sense. Eat fat? So you be hungry, to burn fat? is this a joke? Fat has a lot more calories than fillers, like grains. Why Asians are all slim? They mostly consume Rice, I mean white Rice, not even brown rice. Grains gives you Soluble and indissoluble fiber, consumed with water, will bulk up your in Intestines, helps it’s muscles to move the waste. Dude, here, simple guideline from me, eat sensible, natural food like Greens, don’t over eat, and walk it off everyday. Stay away from Fat. Protein? if you are not working out, you don’t need much protein. Be your own doctor, and listen to your body. I would lean towards Vegan more, especially for elderly.

  • I can’t get your keto calculator to work. I even refreshed the page. I enter in all the information and after I click calculate it just goes back up to the middle of the page as if I didn’t enter in some information. This is VERY frustrating. Luckily I found another keto calculator online. It worked just fine. I wish I knew how to covert those percentages to GRAMS though of food. And I need to find the best foods to get me to 69% fat, 26% protein and 4% carbs. I find that pecans, just 1/4 are four carbs. Even my flavored bottles of water are six carbs each. I worked hard in the yard today for several hours without eating. I ate a good meal last night, 4 pieces of bacon, one small pork chop, one small 100 calorie piece of salmon, butter, mayo for the condiment for the pork. Then later I found a five ounce bag of pork rinds I had forgotten I had. I ate maybe half the bag. Pork rinds seem to be a great way to get fat. I don’t really care for them and I’d eagerly eat corn chips, pretzels or any other snack chip, but well they are crunchy. I drank like 46 ounces of lemonade. I need some stevia too.

  • Will this work for me?
    Im a type 1 diabetic, skinny
    Need to gain muscle mass while keeping carbs(sugar) as low as possible

  • Perhaps that population with low IGF has fewer rates of cancer because of less IGF therefore less cell division and less cell replication and less dna replication and less mutations and less chances of developing those initial mutations and cancer populations but I don’t follow the logic or relevance of ketones causing already established cancerous cells to proliferate?

  • Im in day 4 of Keto and I’ve been following a special diet program that i’ve paid for. When looking at the carbs ratio it sits at 10% or maybe a few tenths of a percent higher even though everyone says you should be getting 5%. I have not yet hit the Keto flu which many say comes only after one or two days which concerns me. Am I doing something wrong? I’ve been following the diet to almost 100%. Is this something to be concerned about or should i be happy that i’ve not reached the keto flu yet or maybe never will? Or could it have to do with weight and height?

  • Thank you very much for uploading this talk. I got more valuable information in one hour here than I got in 6 months of watching the ketosis hacks on other YouTube videos.

  • Thank you! I’m too dumb to understand how to calculate it completely by myself. Your calculator was the best one I found
    I’m a beginner and you’re being a great help for me
    Thank you so much! You do a great work ��

  • this seemed to be a good video but, I never finished watching it because of the irritating unnecessary background music, when the important thing should be to be able to listen to the video without any distractions. What value dd the music add?

  • Extremely useful and interesting although the ridiculous repetitive music behind is absolutely maddening. What is it there for really? It only distracts us from listening to you and that’s a pity because you’re great!

  • Like he toned what does that like some of us don’t know what that is like explain what you’re talkin about what does it mean hello

  • Dr. Ron Rosedale has to be applauded for being a pioneer when speaking about insulin, with respect to aging. While now, among the low carb community, it is commonly talked about, it was seldom spoken of back when Dr. Rosedale first started to speak of it.

  • I can’t find this answer anywhere on YouTube or google! I just started keto and I just want to know do you have to eat high fat?? For example I ate what I was suppose to today with using the carb master app. But it says I can still have 40 more grams of fat!

  • If proteins are 46% ketogenic and fat is zero percent why do you recommend more protein than fat? Atkins was a high protein diet, keto is low carb, high fat, modest protein (<20% calories from proteins)

  • Wow. This is hands dont the best video on how to count macros! Thank you so much for breaking it down and making it easy to understand!

  • This was the only thing that gave me straight answers on wtf everything is. I’ve been going through videos and websites and they would just say something else that I would have to look up and idk it was a whole process so thank you.

  • Hi,I am doing it wrong, no sugar,no carbs,only veggies and meat/fat and only twice reached keto in my urine the rest is negative,I started in mid December lost about 12 pounds,I have cravings,it’s hard to get into ketosis? Any suggestion?
    Never drink sodas,no coffee, only herbal tea,and roasted chicory root coffee,I can not eat fish I am allergic to it

  • Hey so your calculator has me at 2400 cals 120 Grams of protein. Is the calories accurate I’m trying to lose weight. I’ve been on keto for several months now. Burn down a lot of fat and put on hella muscle

  • girl i just went through 6 weeks of 4-5 miles cardio a day plus intense calorie restriction and my bitch ass only lost 4 pounds what the fuck. ima try dis

  • At the end of the podcast where you’re talking about mitochondria and cancer cells made me wonder why metformin reduces cancer risk, but inhibits complex 1. How does that go along with increasing production of ros in the mitochondria to kill cancer cells? There’s probably something I am missing which I am blind to

  • Everything I read on Keto involves fasting. I have tried fasting and I just can’t do it. So will I not lose weight if I don’t fast? Please if there’s anyone out there that does not fast, please please let me know if you’ve lost weight.

  • re cancer: You want to study the Ketogenic Diet for b-hydroxybutyrate and preferential fat oxidation to increase stress in the mitochondria to increase reactive oxygen species to increase apoptotic signaling, but you’re worried about giving the cancer cell the building blocks for more new cells… Why not fasting?:) To quote you “Stress+Stress=Death” the goal of chemo is to kill the weak and hope the strongest survive. Hmm.

  • I’ve been tracking my macros for a while now and one thing I’ve noticed is that I’m on a cut so I have my calories set at 1,500 calories. I shoot for my protein goal everyday but at the end of the day I’m still under my carbs and fats while still being under my 1,500 calories (but not by much). So my question is, do I need to hit EVERY single macro or could I be fine with just meeting my protein goal while staying under my carbs and fats for the day as long as I don’t go over my 1,500 calories?

    Note: Even though I’m low on carbs and fats throughout the day I don’t feel any hungry.

  • When it says eg. ‘120g protein’. Does it mean 120g of chicken breast or 120g of pure protein within that chicken meat? 

    So there is 27g of protein in 100g of chicken. So you can eat 400g of chicken per day?

  • In the 1970s, there was a place with highest rates of heart disease in the World. Finland “Butter soon made its way into almost every meal: butter-fried potatoes, buttered bread. Even traditional fish stew was half butter”. “A pattern soon emerged: The farther north the men lived, the more animal products they consumed and the more heart attacks they suffered” Source: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/04/finlands-radical-heart-health-transformation/389766/

  • This is the most helpful, intelligent sight I’ve found on keto (including the very helpful comments). Especially explaining the complexity of macros.

  • It would be for the public good for us to pay those two to breed like 20 children. Pay them like 500k a year to just have and raise kids.

  • Does Custokebon Secrets really work? I notice many people keep on talking about Custokebon Secrets. But Im uncertain if it is good enough to lost crazy amounts of fat.

  • The best way to get fat adapted and used to the ketogenic diet is starting with fasting, particularly 24 hours. Then go into breaking the fast with fat. I got adapted so quick that I don’t crave sugar, carbs and food in general. I eat when my body tells me it’s time and that’s usually after 4pm.

  • While I respect a lot of what Rosedale says, humans had a long reproductive lifeunlike salmon that spawn and then die. Or animals whose offspring reach reproductive age at or under a year. Humans are born helpless and remain so for a long time.    The survival and the reproductive success of the next generation of humans is greatly enhanced  by the survival of the parents, and even grandparentsso this ‘have a baby then die’ thing does not really make sense.

  • Question. Your macro Calculator doesn’t give me the standard 75/20/5% breakdown. What it calculated for me was 60/35/5%. Should go for if? It decreased my fat and increased my protein by 15% for both.

  • Carnivore keto variants can simply add extra potassium using popular salt-substitutes like “Nu Salt” which is Potassium. I had generous amounts of extra potassium and sea salt. My resting heart rate is idling now at around 44 BPM and my BP is in very healthy range too (106/64).

  • shame on you Phinney, you’re telling people to heay up the olive oil and cook with it?………… since when is that a good idea?

  • re the salt/potassium excretion studies….i understand that increased excretion is correlated with reduced mortality. Can’t this also be interpreted as reducing levels of both in the body (by excretion) is correlated with reduced mortality?
    Just wondering…i’m not a scientist.

  • Attia is definitely intellectually outclassed by Dr. Patrick… he should take a class from her and learn some of the recent research on microbiome.

  • How do you know that you have been on Ketosis for to long? Is there a sign of some kind? Then do you just go back to a higher level of good Carbs?

  • On ‘lite’ salt we have not been able to find potasium chloride or a blend of sodium chloride with potassium chloride that did not have added chemicals. Instead, bone broth is a good source of minerals, and is ridiculously easy to make. This is what used to be called simply broth, or clear soup. A splash of organic apple cider vinegar in a slow cooker with the bones and scraps from whatever meat you have available helps the minerals to be released from the bones. Simmering the broth for 2-3 days also helps. In the not long ago past, everyone used to keep a pot of broth simmering over the fire, woodstove, or on the back burner.

    Adding a good measure of unprocessed salt (Himalayan,Redmonds, etc) enhances the flavor, and also helps provide the salt we need. Other herbs can be added to taste.

    Of course, 100% grassfed beef or lamb or other herbivore, or pastured poultry or pork that have been raised without chemicals or chemically contaminated feed is ideal.

  • Why use the metric of BMI? This was developed over a century ago as METRIC OF A POPULATION not of individuals.

    At 32:30 ALL GRAINS ARE TOXIC! No human can fully breakdown grains into amino acids.


    At 58:45 to 59:13 Why give a pill ( other than to make tons of money ) to lower Triglycerides when high triglycerides are caused by a high carbohydrate diet low fat diet?

    Why not mentioning good animal sources of fats? Saturated fats are stable fats unlike the PUFAS and seed oils which toxins. Meats heal!

  • I have lost 238 pounds on Keto and I have kept it off. I have wanted to make sure that I keep all my minerals and vitamins in check when I was having some odd symptoms. I felt like I may be low in magnesium so I started eating a lot of spinach. I ate 85-170 grams of it a day. After about a year of that, I got terrible kidney stones and the dr said I need a low oxalate diet for the rest of my life after the surgery. My muscles symptoms never cleared up when eating all the spinach anyway but how can you get magnesium when you can not eat the green leafy veggies as they recommend?

  • I do not understand and I have been looking for months for this answer but I am no finding it. My pink salt says that it is 1/4 TSP is 1.1 grams of salt. It says it has 420 mg of sodium. But if sodium is not salt then where do I get up to 5 grams of sodium from? So if I was to take in pink salt to hit the 5 grams of sodium a day I would need to have 2.5 teaspoons of pink salt a day?

  • Checkout my keto diet recipe playlist with 90 different videos you can follow. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tL1jctHgvGQ&list=PLgkANeC_B56A6QVBKTZ0TOssY1AWcF7lJ

  • What a great presentation, you have Q and A included as well.
    Inflammation was my enemy for well over 3 decades, most because of my lifestyle.
    I am slowly weening off carbs and have never felt better, inflammation fell faster than you can count.
    Now it is my beer I need to tackle, my last vice.
    Glad to hear wine is ok here and there as I love a red or white as well.
    I know, I have a drinking obsession like most Aussie men do. ��

  • So ketogenic diet with “moderate” protein intake is bad for longevity? It should be high fat, low protein, and low carb diet then that is the most efficient for avoiding all diseases?

  • Question, A friend of ine had hospital visit. he is almost 60 years old. He had eaten what he thinks has been healthy all his life. Anyway he has been trying to eat keto this week. and after three days we tested his ketones in his urine and has has none, is there any reason this will happen?

  • Jesus Christ! This talk has so much gold in it… not the least of which is regarding alcohol and salt (from the 40 minute mark through the next 10 minutes or so)… two things people like, and two things a keto diet permits (and for salt, encourages). Those two things could be leveraged to gain adherence (and adherents) to the diet, but would also cause a huge scandal. lol!

  • I am having the damnedest time getting my fat up over 50%. Carbs I have no problem with I can stick under 20 30g, protein though that’s always about 50-70g. I just don’t see how people can eat so much fat without the protein.

  • He never goes into ketosis’ affect on cancer. I guess that’s because there don’t seem to be definitive studies, but I wish he would look in to this.

  • Seriously you guys had to waste so much time on dumb alcohol questions?:/ If you are so concerned whether you can drink wine, you should go to rehab before the keto diet.

  • Does Custokebon Secrets (just google it) help me lost a ton of fat? I see many people keep on speaking about this popular fat burn secrets.

  • If you want to shed pounds, you should look up Custokebon Secrets on the google search engine. They’ll help you get the body you need.

  • wait I dont understand if you’re supposed to eat a certain amount of calories everyday but want to lose weight how do you do that when u can only eat a certain amount of calories without eating less or changing the percentages of macros

  • Thanks Dr. Rosedale, good points and food for thought. We agree Diabetes Type 2/3, IR, CVD. are metabolic diseases, but we now know about “Autophagy” (Nobel Prize 2016) and the fact that we recycle 70% of our proteins, hence, need a lot less than previously thought. Probably the reason LCHF is producing results… tx excellent ref for study.
    However, I think you are overlooking the fact that we are a “Supra-Organism”, 1 Million Genes (23,000 are human) operating collectively, est 80% of immune response is Gut Microbiome.
    http://www.70GoingOn100.com the Centenarian Diet, or maybe 128, the Hayflick limit, or if a Ray Kurzweil fan then this is a Moot Point …

  • This was so informative! Thank you, Dr Phinney, so much for educating us and supplying the support we need to continue on this life style because God knows that there is very little support in the vast medical community. I am a big believer in consuming bone broth and have been making it for years. Never thought to put lite salt in my broth, but sure will now. This low carb healthy fat plan has changed my life!

  • I thought alcohol is prioritized in your liver to be broken down, above glucose and fats, which would temporarily stop ketone production, kicking you out of ketosis. Keotsis could then resume once the alcohol had been processed into fat.

  • So basically because of the effects on the insulin/glucagon ratio either a keto or carnivore diet will still be catabolic, both are highly viable. Protein and Fat seemingly regardless of ratio, maintain the low ratio of 1.3 by being low carb diets. In fact it may push the advantage onto carnivore because of ensuring carnitine levels and glucagon levels remain high with the higher protein, and maintains lean body mass.

  • So the question becomes: how to optimize ketogenic diets IN A PRACTICAL MANNER to facilitate this? Keto diets are already a real challenge for many of us who live in various communities with limited dietary options, this seems to add a wrinkle…

  • With respect to the drop off in ketones for long term ketogenic nutrition in TD2 I see this in myself. I was pre DB2 (reversed). My fasting glucose has elevated in morning from prior context of about 75-90 mg/dL to often now 101-106 mg/dL with decent ketone generation (.7-1.1 mmol/L). I interpret this phenomena as more efficient use of ketones and also a reset of basil glucose levels to higher a new normal. I am also higher levels of protein since I do heavy gym workouts and focusing on LBM simultaneous with body fat loss.

  • 26:30 Thyroid Function The average person on a low carb or keto diet is not aware that the Thyroid is affected.
    Guys here’s a link to what they are talking about.

  • My whole journey has been trouble shooting. There is a ton of “keto” foods I can no have without being kicked out of ketosis. Can’t even touch “sugar free” anything. I vlog it daily so people can learn from my experience.

  • Or no salt which is all sodium chloride. 530mg potassium chloride per gram or 1/4 teaspoon. I dose 5 grams a day in water on a carnivore eating protocol

  • This guy talks like he has it all figured out, but looks like he is 70 years old. For him, now what? Time seems to be running out pertaining to his “longevity”.

  • Australian nutrition labels all list fibre separately carbs ie the ‘carbohydrate’ listed is net carbs. To calculate total carbs (if that’s what you’re tracking) you’d have to add darbs and fibre together.

  • I have receintly have had gout. I need to loose weight. I love fish, but the diet for gout suggests not to eat fatty fish like sardines, tuna, shrimp etc. Is the protein low enough that I can now eat some of the drier fish and when I loose weight I will not have the threat of gout again

  • Alcohol is very addictive for a lot of people, moderation is not the key but mere abstinence is. Therefore, it is very dangerous to recommend having alcohol.. bottom line there’s no good in drinking alcohol whatsoever and it should be avoided by most people. So there’s no point talking about alcohol here…


  • Anyone tried the Custokebon Secrets? I have heard many awesome things about it and my work buddy lost crazy amounts of weight with Custokebon Secrets (just search it on google).

  • Trying to work out the macros but it keeps giving me an error. I’ll check it again later, might just be a temporary fault. Thanks for sharing great video!

  • I have tried everything. I gained weight in places where I didn’t want them. It was a struggle to get them off. Weight in my stomach, thighs, and definitely my CHEEKS!! I’m so thankful I found https://mmini.me/YourKetoDiet I wanted a change that worked fast and stay consistent! I cut out junk food and processed foods, and drink plenty of water with minimal exercises and stayed consistent with my KETO diet. I hope it helps and inspires others! Now I kickbox and personal train people that need help too!

  • I am here watching because of Dr. Jason Fung MD…. Toronto Nephrologist who wrote recent “Obesity Code”. Both Fung and Rosedale assert that excess protein converts to glucose=insulinogenesis=obesity=shorter life span.

  • Excellent lecture. Dr. Bikman broke it down simply for me to understand. I wonder, however as I get older, consuming more protein on a Low carb diet, offsets the diminish production of testosterone?

  • Dr. Hyman’s lecture-style method of explaining the Keto diet doesn’t seem to need a hostess. So… why is she even sitting there? (He doesn’t even make eye contact with her…) Distractingly awkward dynamic…

  • Dr Bikman’s explanation of how gluconeogenesis cannot afford be halted in a fasted or low carb diet, resulting in flat insulin levels after protein intake was excellent news. I had a question whether the same would be true if one consumed a whey protein isolate shake immediately following weight /resistance training. I have heard that this type of protein shake was so quickly absorbed that it caused a massive insulin spike. Would that spike also be mitigated in a low or no carb individual?

  • so glad i found this talk. i’ve been keto for over a year, and i’ve had higher protein consistently and feel much better than high fat with “moderate” protein. this basically confirmed my belief that the advertised “keto” is somewhat misleading

  • OK I’m starting day one tomorrow…done all my shopping..so please someone tell me how much fat a day I need I’m 302lbs 5’5 an right now very little exercise.an should I be taken collagen

  • He is a professor at Brigham Young University. That is a private research university located in Provo, Utah and owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. So far about scientific credentials….

  • My question is to Dr. Patrick or anyone else that is in this particular science field. When in the future do you think we will be able to have a biomarker or genetic test that will provide each individual with reliable/complete information on macro and micronutrient needs and the prevention of diseases and other important information like exercise?

  • It is my understanding that Mice and Rats can not be made to go into Ketosis, can anyone confirm?
    Point being they may be not ideal models for human metabolism study

  • I always thank you, B e successful…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  • Hey guys, I just came across an amazing collection of Keto Resource plans. I do believe that it is perfectly working and if you`d like to learn about more or get it access, just click it: https://xquick5.weebly.com/

  • I really appreciate this lecture and the protein advice. I feel comfortable upping my protein because of this. I have been keto for a year and now have a normal A1C so it is time because I need to build lean body mass to protect my bones as I age!!

  • This perfectly explains the claim (with some merit) of “Red Meat produces a larger Insulin spike than Pasta”:)
    The Amino Acids in the Red Meat CAN & WILL cause a big Insulin response IF you are also eating a lot of Carbs in your diet 😉

  • Just the opposite of “dumbed-down.” Thank you for increasing our understanding of the chemical processes going on when we consume food.

  • Dr Bikman’s Assertion about the brain glucose relationship is confusing.
    To quote one study.

    The role of glucose for brain function

    Glucose (Glc) is the main source of energy for the mammalian brain, (a) Specialized centers in the brain, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the hypothalamus, sense central and peripheral glucose levels and regulate glucose metabolism through the vagal nerve as well as neuroendocrine signals.. (b) Glucose supply to the brain is regulated by neurovascular coupling and may be modulated by metabolism-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Glucose enters the brain from the blood by crossing the BBB through glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and (c) glucose and other metabolites (e.g. lactate, Lac) are rapidly distributed through a highly coupled metabolic network of brain cells. (d) Glucose provides the energy for neurotransmission, and (e) several glucose-metabolizing enzymes control cellular survival. Disturbed glucose metabolism on any of these levels can be the foundation for the development of a large variety of disorders of the brain (see section on “Disease mechanisms”).


  • Either Dr Hyman should look at the host more to include her in the conversation or she should look toward the audience and not him. Otherwise, good information.

  • amazing talk, great insights. as an MD I am genuinely excited there is such a great science seeking community. I have a question though when will we start doing experiments comparing a decent diet with a decent diet? I know sad is bad but is ketogenic diet our only possible alternative? I want to enjoy fruit:)

  • Of course Dr.ATTIA apréciate de facto on FMT fecal transplants. He has much respect to the individual genotypes that we humans carry in each of our own specific pathway. On the note of that he has referred to many trials in this matter on how micronutrients will serve us in life up until a point in lifetime meaning he has a very high ability to understand and respect the facts on how to adjust these measures of the “correct” intake of nutrients to each individual as this question that everybody seems to repeatedly want an answer “today” is thus related to science in real time. You have to monitor each individual before opening that collectively misunderstood box of knowledge with the sum of all these “hearsay “ believers thinking that the answer “must” be there when it is really not —yet ready. The ongoing studies on the longevity questionis still on an threshold. This guy is being honestunlike many other big mouthed “scientists”. How many false and inaccurate clinical trials have not already been subsequent deluded with with bombastic statements claiming we should be doing this or must not….etc. just so some big pharmaceutical company can excerpt huge economic gains on the masses misinformed practice.

    When or If DR.ATTIA makes a statements will be through the specifically suggested balance of fat and carbs, directly linked to each genotype in discussion, asserted scientifically.

    I don’t even see how this Ronda is even able to make his level of knowledge justice with her very unprepared and “high-school” like persona. The lack of quality she displays here and in so many of her interviews in her “blog”podcast or whatever, is so painful to watch. She seems uneasy and untuned with the presentation of the content of her subjects. And yes, she is painfully uncoordinated on how she organize her interviews.

  • “Larger animals die before smaller animals? Really? Tell that to the whales which are mammals,eat exclusively protein,are the largest mammals on the planet and are the longest living animal on the planet.the bow head whale up to 200 years. Cockatoos one of the largest parrots and longest living birds and another big bird flamingos up to 80 years. The giant tortoise,the longest living and the biggest. I guess that blows that statement out of the water

  • I’ve watched this 3 or 4 times, and I learn something I didn’t see before (why, idk)
    But I having been doing carnivore with zero carbs (or some days, perhaps
    2 gms of carbs)
    THIS…to me explains the results in seeing.
    I was on keto for 6 months previously, and although I enjoyed ketones in the range of 2.0 and higher, weight loss was slower, than the rate of weight loss on carnivore.
    While on carnivore, I’ve seen my ketones decline to an avg of.8 to 1.0
    BUT..heres the thing I learned to day in this video. Consuming protein, while maintaining zero to low carbs Increases Glucogon..while insulin remained stable.
    I’m seeing this by doing a self study on MYSELF today..
    Measuring my blood glucose 30 mins after consuming protein..with a moderate work out in a fasted state at the gym in the morning.

    Before watching this video again today, I was doing OMAD with carnivore..
    and couldn’t,understand why I was so hungry during the 12th to 16th hr in my fast my Glucogon would slide and that would effect my ketone production basically, I needed to consume more protein.
    I, for myself believe, that while on,carnivore, I cannot OMAD.
    I ate once this,morning at 11 am
    Then was terribly weak with no energy around 4pm
    I ate again at 6pm (this is carnivore I’m eating NO carbs..moderate fat)
    And watched my blood sugar every hour.
    To my amazement (as this study revealed) my bs remained stable only increasing from 95 to 101, and then 1 hr after that, returned to 95 AND I felt better, I felt better BRAINWise..
    I checked my ketone strips and saw an increase in ketones.

    Thank you for this study yes, a k-nine study but very relevant. I feel like a light went on academically for me as I learned what was happening.

    Before, the decrease in ketones from,OMAD caused me to consider abandoning carnivore, but after watching this video AGAIN and understanding more, I will continue with it and monitor my results.

    I know one thing for sure, this is a game changer. A life style change. There’s no way I’m returning to a life if carbs..because the negative consequences of falling out of keto and gluconeogenesis, FAR OUTWEIGH the benefits of how I feel and the weight loss I achieve being in ketosis..whether high fat keto..or Carnivore.
    Thank you Ben.
    Great vid.