Do Psychological Diagnoses Matter Searching for Mental Health Solutions

 

Mental Health Education Series: Anxiety Disorders

Video taken from the channel: InHealth: A Washington Hospital Channel


 

DSM-5 Sparks Mental Illness Debate | Agenda

Video taken from the channel: DW News


 

New Thoughts About Mental Illness: Implications for Discovery & Treatment

Video taken from the channel: Brain & Behavior Research Foundation


 

Dr Praveen Tripathi Live (answers questions on mental health and psychiatric illnesses)

Video taken from the channel: Dr. Praveen Tripathi


 

Psychological Disorders: Crash Course Psychology #28

Video taken from the channel: CrashCourse


 

Principles of Psychiatric Assessment and Management Diagnosis, Formulation and Management

Video taken from the channel: PsychScene Hub


 

Complex Psychiatric Cases: Diagnosis and Treatment

Video taken from the channel: NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital


Better Mental Health Care. Unfortunately, we treat mental health as simply a disorder in the mind, a bug in the system, a diagnosis to be handled with a specific protocol. This can actually obfuscate things and keep underlying issues from being treated.

Stress is one of the primary factors of poor mental health. Q: Is a psychiatric diagnosis the same as a physical health diagnosis? A: There are similarities and differences. Similarities:Diagnoses in physical health and mental health often use the same type of language such as symptoms, disorders, and illness.

Both medical and psychiatric diagnoses aim to group similar experiences together. When the National Institute of Mental Health concluded that DSM diagnoses do not map underlying causes and cannot be a foundation for mental health research, the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM is considered the definitive guide for mental health professionals, and provides descriptions for all mental health problems and their symptoms. The five chapters analyzed were: bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and trauma-related disorders. Researchers came to a number of troubling conclusions.

A new study, published in Psychiatry Research, has concluded that psychiatric diagnoses are scientifically worthless as tools to identify discrete mental health disorders. When the National Institute of Mental Health concluded that DSM diagnoses do not map underlying causes and cannot be a foundation for mental health research, the American Psychiatric Association. In addition to recognizing the bias against people with a psychiatric diagnosis, there is general unrest over the validity of psychiatric diagnoses. On April 29, 2013, Dr. Thomas R. Insel, director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) posted a blog about the soon-to-be-released DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

How do I challenge a mental illness diagnosis, verbally and written? I need as much help with this as Answered by a verified Mental Health Professional. We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. His mind seems to be closed on the matter.

The right treatment program begins with the right diagnosis. When teams know exactly what is causing a mental health issue, they can know what to do to help ease symptoms. There are a variety of tested and proven tests doctors can use to help their clients when they seem to be struggling with mental health concerns. The patient is confused and unable to answer questions.

Select the nurse’s best action. a. Record the patient’s answers to questions on the nursing assessment form. b. Ask an advanced practice nurse to perform the assessment interview. c. Call for a mental health advocate to maintain the patient’s rights. d.

List of related literature:

However, since most psychiatric disorders cannot be diagnosed using hard’ tests, even mental health specialists may disagree about the nature of a psychiatric disorder.

“Fitness for Work: The Medical Aspects” by John Hobson, Julia Smedley
from Fitness for Work: The Medical Aspects
by John Hobson, Julia Smedley
Oxford University Press, 2019

Certainly, all of the structured and semistructured diagnostic interviews are designed specifically to aid in psychiatric diagnosis.

“Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment, Volume 2: Personality Assessment” by Mark J. Hilsenroth, Daniel L. Segal, Michel Hersen
from Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment, Volume 2: Personality Assessment
by Mark J. Hilsenroth, Daniel L. Segal, Michel Hersen
Wiley, 2003

The clinical interview and assessment in psychiatry are intended to identify whether or not a patient has a mental health problem, the nature of any problem(s), and the specific diagnoses.

“Study Guide to DSM-5®” by Laura Weiss Roberts, Alan K. Louie
from Study Guide to DSM-5®
by Laura Weiss Roberts, Alan K. Louie
American Psychiatric Publishing, 2014

For example, even if a patient’s symptoms fulfill the criteria for Schizotypal Personality Disorder, they may not receive that diagnosis if they have already met the criteria for the diagnosis of Schizophrenia.

“Study Guide to DSM-IV-TR” by Michael A. Fauman
from Study Guide to DSM-IV-TR
by Michael A. Fauman
American Psychiatric Pub., 2002

Across medical settings, psychological evaluations are requested for a specific purpose (even if that purpose is as broad as an “emotional evaluation”) usually termed the referral question.

“Diagnostic Interviewing” by Daniel L. Segal, Michel Hersen
from Diagnostic Interviewing
by Daniel L. Segal, Michel Hersen
Springer US, 2009

Across healthcare settings, psychological evaluations are requested for a specific purpose (even if that purpose is as broad as an “emotional evaluation”) usually termed the referral question.

“Diagnostic Interviewing” by Daniel L. Segal
from Diagnostic Interviewing
by Daniel L. Segal
Springer US, 2019

It is not that psychiatrists and other mental health professionals do not understand the difference between crisis and mental illness, but once a patient is admitted to a medical or hospital establishment, managed care and insurance policies require diagnosing them.

“People in Crisis: Clinical and Diversity Perspectives” by Lee Ann Hoff, Lisa Brown, Miracle R. Hoff
from People in Crisis: Clinical and Diversity Perspectives
by Lee Ann Hoff, Lisa Brown, Miracle R. Hoff
Taylor & Francis, 2011

They put in the MMPI ºnly those questions that were answered differently by a diagnºstic group (e.g., schizophrenic patients).

“Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach” by Leslie A. Miller, Robert L. Lovler
from Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach
by Leslie A. Miller, Robert L. Lovler
SAGE Publications, 2015

Those with antisocial, schizoid and paranoid personalities may tend not to seek specific help or treatment from mental health services, but rather for other problems, e.g. comorbid disorders such as substance abuse or anxiety, and the presence of personality disorder may be under-recognised or under-diagnosed.

“Companion to Psychiatric Studies E-Book” by Eve C Johnstone, David Cunningham Owens, Stephen M Lawrie, Andrew M McIntosh, Michael D. Sharpe
from Companion to Psychiatric Studies E-Book
by Eve C Johnstone, David Cunningham Owens, et. al.
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2010

Since they are not considered mental disorders, they have no diagnostic criteria nor diagnostic codes.

“Mental Health and Mental Disorders: An Encyclopedia of Conditions, Treatments, and Well-Being [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Conditions, Treatments, and Well-Being” by Len Sperry
from Mental Health and Mental Disorders: An Encyclopedia of Conditions, Treatments, and Well-Being [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Conditions, Treatments, and Well-Being
by Len Sperry
ABC-CLIO, 2015

Alexia Lewis RD

Registered Dietitian Nutritionist and Certified Heath Coach who believes life is better with science, humor, and beautiful, delicious, healthy food.

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53 comments

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  • Doctor!!! Need a small help.. We both share same name and I believe a very similar gmail ID because of which many of your patients are writing to me about their personal problems and request for appointments. It pains me that they are writing to a wrong person and there is a delay in getting right attention. May I request you to have your email ID shared with viewers so that they can reach you, in time.:)

  • Guys i want to ask something, it may not related to the vid. I don’t know but i want to take an abnormal psychology couse and i decided to take it now, i’m only 13 y/o do you think my mind is in the right condition to take such a big course?

  • All mental health problems are caused by severe calcium deficiency. This begins in the womb or in infancy. The human body can assimilate calcium only from fresh, natural, uncooked foods especially leafy greens and grasses, wheatgrass. Artificial supplements do not work. The best way to get the calcium from greens is through green smoothies.

    Brain chemical imbalances have never been proved.

    One of the reasons why mental health problems generally develop or manifest in late adolescence is because of the body’s need for tremendous amounts of calcium due to the sudden spurt in physical growth.

    Calcium is needed for proper neurotransmitter function.

    It is also important to minimise chronic cellular inflammation by avoiding white sugar, refined carbs and oils and fats that increase cellular inflammation.

    Cellular inflammation prevents the absorption of nutrients vitamins and minerals.

  • Its kinda sick that they still strap People to beds even though atleast the People Ive met when Ive been sectioned who were strapped to beds get increasingly worse and tend to have a harder time being let out.

  • Hello doctor first I would say you are very sweet & second I love watching your videos moreover the way you explain its finominal & outstanding ���� lots of love stay blessed ✋��

  • Hii sir main bhut depression me hun per mera help koi nhi kar rahan meri ek chhoti be ti 3 sal ki mere sasural wale bhut torchere karte hai srf bolte hai marja warna mardungi kya karun kucch samajh me nhi aa rahan marne jati hun to beti ko dekh ker khud ko samvalti hun per kab tak akele khud ko samvalo..dr k pass v nhi jane dete or jak v kya karungi mere pass to pesa hi nhi hai

  • Hear that folks, you have to live in such environments in order to behave in such ways. So his life must be perfect in order to make an intellectual design. All environmental pressures have a distress effect

  • Personally, I’ve been at inpatient mental care aka “a mental asylum” four times. It’s not fun, but over the years they’ve gotten a lot better, you’re not treated as quite human though, it is at least sanitary now.

  • Hello Sir, Am fresh viewer of your channel…. If you don’t mind I want your suggestions regarding heart pain from left palm to heart slight pain…. And I have indigestion problem and constipation…. Earlier during lockdown. Am suffering from anxiety and stress due to corona news and studies issues.. now am feel beeter but mild heart pain from left palm to heart since one month…. What can I do for this? How to bal. Hormones.? And Now am taking medicine Levosulpride 25 mg, chlordiazepoxide and Amitriptyline hydrochloride 12.5mg, Esomeprazole 40…. So what should I do for betterment and why pain happen????

  • Guys, it’s 11pm and I literally saw two mostly undetectible things with pointy white shade at one of the side. They were just flying in the sky. I was thinking about the lesson when I noticed it.

  • What if you are a person who cannot have any type of relationships?
    You can only work at a job that keeps you completely isolated from people.
    Just making small talk will offend people. Then it will get you into trouble.
    What if you cannot keep a job. Much less a home?
    What would you call that?

  • Doc Mai bohat depression me hon suicide ki sonch atih hai…AP plz help Kar sakhtey hai…?? jeene ki Wajah bhi toh nhi milre…Kya karu doc??

  • does anyone else choose to procrastinate doing their school work by watching crash course and convincing themselves that it’s okay because its educational

  • 6:58 EXACTLY

    This is my absolute favorite explanation of what mental health is. I want to share this a million + more times. This needs to be common knowledge… I definitely learned a few things from this..

  • GG….
    How was mental health like in Bible times?

    Was it better?
    I think so… Because of spiritual thinking?
    Or walking by the spirit

    Oh lalalah

  • It is hard to get out of mental institutions once in because people get paid to keep you in. The system is set up to make you crazy to justify their income and to sexual abuse crazy people who have no rights. The priest rapes devilish children.

  • Dr. Tripathi, my father is a schizophrenia patient since 27 years. We are watching him suffering since our childhood. Many psychiatry dept. HOD given him treatment but the disease never been cured. Every single day he is taking those anti psychiatry tablets. Since two years he has developed a cycle, in which he becomes normal for 20 days and then become abnormal for another 20 days. Here I keep you remind even in abnormal days he never denied to take his medicines. There is no financial pressure, no family issue or burdon on him. He is an engineer by profession a govt servant and about to retire in few months. Can you help me sir. Please share your contact no.

  • I have OCD. I swear I’m not a villain. I just overthink (O) and overact(C) a lot more than others (D). The BIG words just scar people.

  • Nature goes on forever for everyone and everything to return as everyone and everything an infinite number of times.�� �� �� Deal with it.

  • Mental illness is not a joke. People think that hearing voices or talking to yourself makes the individual mentally ill. Not true. Also people stereotype individuals with mental illnesses as violent. People are dumb. They try to get ahead in life pointing a finger and just because they have some money they think the world revolves around them. I know plenty of people that are poor and are happy. Doctors make mistakes. That’s life. Maybe people should get to know people with a mental illness and stop being biased.

  • This crash course was very thorough and easy to understand. I definitely learned a lot about the history of the DSM just by watching this 10-min video. Thank you!

  • From this video I’ve learned that the way we evaluate mental illness is incorrect and inefficient. I’ve learned that mental illness originally was viewed as irreversible and uncurable and that lead to a lack of motivation to put forth resources to try to cure people.

  • When I get my mental disorder in from Amazon I am going to go down to my local pond and eat all those damn bullfrogs that keep me up at night

  • As feedback, if these videos could focus on the slides so we can see them, it would be very helpful. Many of the BBR videos are hard to watch and digest as a result of not seeing the accompanying visuals.

  • No one knows the real pain of actually having a mental disorder. It is when you actually realize you’re different from your surroundings and it feels like you’re on the outside. People look at you in a strange way and just know something isn’t right with you. It’s like rejection on the daily basis which makes you not even want to go outside or be around people because you see the outside as a threat now. Then you go on pretending like you’re normal trying to fake be happy and try to blend in with others. People have an instinct and can feel something is not right with you and get “put off” by you. It’s like you have a different energy. You’re just off putting. Yes this is about me and it’s a daily struggle but I’ve been practicing gratitude and working out and trying to think about healthy thoughts. As you get older you realize that you knew you were different from the kids at school but not in a good way. But there is always hope. I keep seeing signs that make me not give up on hope. I know i’ll have a different life from others but i’ll try to make it the best as I can.

  • Aap ki bajeh se meri over thinking bimaari ka ilaaj ho rha bhut aaram hy phle mujhe nhi ptaa tha ki my bimar hu Aapka video dekha tb ptaa chlaa ki nigetib ovarthinking ki bimaari hy hme 15 years se hy ������ Nice sir

  • That whole thing about hearing one voice once becoming more important than weeks of normal behaviour is something I’ve been thinking a lot about recently. I kind of feel like there are some toxic communities online that almost promote mental illnesses? Like instead of saying “you should get help and feel better” they’re saying “everyone has a mental disorder. It’s nothing to be ashamed of.” And this really scares me bc it makes people who have a meltdown over a presentation worth 30% of their grade one time think they have a full blown anxiety disorder and that they should go on meds ASAP to ‘get better.’ Just because you feel sad doesn’t mean you have depression. Just because you feel anxious, doesn’t mean you have anxiety.
    And I know Hank was talking about doctors in that context but I’ve seen people, and myself too as a bit of a hypochondriac, do it to themselves.

  • Sir, is there any treatment for irritable bowel syndrome and my wife has gone into depression due to irritable bowel syndrome, can it be treated?

  • This guy never allows you to leave the video Breath Dude! Or the editing was purposely done like this by youtube psychologists!?

  • Sir mujha ak bhoot problem ho gya ha patta nhi kysa solve koru…sir app se bath krni thii..sir appse personali kysa bath karu…apka mobile number send ki jiya na…pls pls sir ������

  • Hello sir..I m depressed almost from one year…but I have never consulted any doctor…and I m facing anxiety and having negative thoughts too

  • Mr Praveen… I want you to help me understand about how to shift our interest in one gender… I fell shallow with this feeling and confused… Pls help

  • BEDLAM / Bethleham Asylum = most fascinating asylum ever IMHO <=fantastic book by Mike Jay about this called the Influencing Machine: James Tilly & The Air Loom:THE INFLUENCING MACHINE (UK edition) – Strange Attractor Press
    A VISIONARY MADNESS (US edition) – North Atlantic Press 

    ‘One of the greatest books you’ve never read’.. William Gibson 

    ‘Beautifully written, with all the drama, the rich characterization, the subtlety, of a fine novel.’ 
    from the foreword by Oliver Sacks

     “Confined in Bedlam in 1797 as an incurable lunatic, James Tilly Matthews’ case is one of the most bizarre in the annals of psychiatry. He was the first person to insist that his mind was being controlled by a machine: the Air Loom, a terrifying secret weapon whose mesmeric rays and mysterious gases were brainwashing politicians and plunging Europe into revolution, terror and war. But Matthews’ case was even stranger than his doctors realised: many of the incredible conspiracies in which he claimed to be involved were entirely real. Caught up in high-level diplomatic intrigues in the chaos of the French revolution, he found himself betrayed by both sides, and in possession of a secret that no-one would believe…” Originally published as The Air Loom Gang (2003), the text has been fully revised and updated, with newly discovered source material and previously unpublished images.”

    Aswell as a BEAUTIFUL book that accompanied a musem exhibit on Asylums in general:

    “THIS WAY MADNESS LIES
    the asylum and beyond by MIke Jay”

    Thames and Hudson (UK and US)

    Published to complement the exhibition Bedlam: the asylum and beyond (Wellcome Collection, London, September 2016 – January 2017)

    “This Way Madness Lies explores the meaning of madness, or mental illness, through the prism of the institution that defined it: the asylum.

    Combining the perspectives of doctors and patients, artists, social commentators and reformers, it tells the story of its successive incarnations: the 18th century madhouse, designed to segregate its inmates from society;  the 19th century lunatic asylum, which aimed to restore their reason by humane treatment; and the 20th century mental hospital, which reconceived their conditions as diseases of the brain. At the same time it traces the alternatives to the asylum that each era imagined, and often created.

    The asylums were closed a generation ago, in the belief that new medical treatments were making them redundant. Today’s marketplace teems with medications and alternative therapies – as the era before the asylum did – yet more people are diagnosed with mental illnesses than ever before and for many there are no satisfactory options. How might we come to terms with these conditions in the future, and can the original ideal of the asylum – a place of refuge and care – still be recovered?”

  • Hello, I mean, from my illness, what is the meaning of the Koran? End the peace. End the peace. Please surrender. Please surrender. End the peace

    وشكرن

  • Sir Meri Behen ko Bohot Pain Hota Hai Poore Sar mein aur Zyada Peechay Head ke Right Side Aur Neck ko bhi Clicking Sound Nikalti hai. Aur Woh Cheekhti hai Cheezey Phenkti hai, Gaaliya Deti hai, Maarti hai Sabko, Ausko khud mein Koi Control nhi rehta hai, Darwaze Tod diye, Road pe bhi Jaati hai Bahar roney Kuch Samajh nhi Aaraha Kya Karein Psychiatrist, Neurologist Sabko dikhaya Test bhi karaya, Ausmein Sabh Thek hai, Doctors boltey hai Depression ki Wajah se Lagataar Head ke Peechay Right Side Pain hai Dard toh har Din Hoti Hai Magr Cheekhey Gaaliya Aur Cheeze Phekti hai 1 Month mein 1 baar periods ke doo char din pehle. Aur Bolti Rehti hai Mujhe Behaush hone ki Medicine do, Hum pechlay 5 Saal se Roo Rahe hai. Aur wo Society mein bhi Kisi na kisi ke Saath Ladayi karti hai. Chaai bhi 6 7 baar boil karwati hai Aur kbi bolti hai isko Smell hai phir Peeti bhi nhi hai kisi din. Jab woh Thek hoti hai Toh Bilkul Normal Hoti hai, Aram se baat karti hai Aur kbhi Ausko Kuch Anger Disorder Jaisa Hota hai. Woh Bachpan Mein Aisa Nhi Karti Thi But Bachpan Mein Kisi Bhi Cheez par Zidd Karti Thi Jab Tak na Woh Miley Tab tak Rotey Rehti Thi Aur Maar bhi Khati Thi plz Help koi Suggestion do kya kare Aus Time Jab Woh Gusey Mein Hoti Hai.

  • Sir youtube ane se pehle 1 notification de dijiye. I’m also suffering from depression and anxiety for 5 years but I never lose my hopes. Kyunki kahi padha tha, “Every problem comes with solution.

  • I am an avid #MentalHealthAwareness advocate and spoken word performer, and I love this so much. I travel the country trying to bring that awareness on stages, in classrooms, hospitals, and on my YouTube channel, so I get excited when I see other advocates. ��❤

  • Pls sir mera rply kr dijiye me bhut presan hu.Sir meri beti abhi 6 minth ki h.aur ose 2din se vitamin d aur multivitamin ki drop o.3 aur o.5 ml ki jgh 3 ml aur 5ml dila gya h.sir pls rply kriye meri beti ko koi problem to nhi hoga na pls sir mujhe bhut dr lg rha h

  • This shows how many People live in dangerous conditions not putting in mental hospitals. We need to rethink the freedom of severe mental illness on our streets

  • Isn’t weird, now we how one kid shows hardly any interest in killing, he only killed once, its not like he killed all the time… why label him as a killer?

    How do we get worse and lack common sense?

  • Sir mujhe anxity problem last 3 Year se chal raha but dimag mai baidha ki mujhe hard ki problem hai but mai 4 baar ecg aur ekk baar eco karwaya but Hard se related koi problem nahi hai jab anxity hoti hai mera bp high ho jata hai help me

  • Sir please moje botaiye ek woman ka golbladder and cesarean ai 2 operation hone ke bad osko future me cancer hone ka chance hai. Mera direct question hai sir ek mohila ka operation ki bosah se cancer hone ka chance hai.

  • What do you all think of my mum telling me to watch less educational YouTube because it’s taking away from my social life. She said if I wanna talk about philosophy I should do it with a friend. Do you Agree or think she doesn’t know what introvert means?

  • “Psychiatry is NOT a branch of medicine. 
    It is a social control mechanism that supplements the criminal system.
    It is a the branch of the law. 
    There is Mental Health laws (ie. there is no Cancer law, no diabetes law)”

    …..Like Slavery, it was normal to whip an escaped slave, but unless we abolish slavery only then whipping a person would be unlawful. 
    So like slavery, we must abolish Psychiatry and its power!

  • Brainswashed innocent client with fake diagnostic describe! Doctors = swindlers industry psychiatry = swindler selling liars talks!

  • The use of electroshock or ECT has proved brain injuries by the CA courts around devices used. No FDA testing for safety or effectiveness. Dr. Bennet Omalu famous for findings of CTE in the NFL is stating similar outcomes expected given repeated brain injuries from electrical trauma in this. Current national device suit taking place in US. 5 billion in revenues from this practice in the US alone. Cover ups and harm for decades taking place at leading facilities. Used for many mental health conditions now and no longer a last resort. Patients are showing damages on testing. Increase in suicide after use of ECT in patients can find little help to address damages currently. This is also being used on our children and Veterans. Electrical trauma can evolve years out to include onset of ALS and ongoing cardiac issues as well. Given the situation of Covid more patients will be at risk for being offered this so inform yourselves. See ectjustice site and life after ECT site. If you have had ECT please contact the DK law group in CA to see if you qualify for joining the device suit. Please share this information with others in particular on public social as major media protecting providers and facilities.

  • Hello I live outside India,, I called so many times ur assistance do not help at all and sometimes no one answers the call,, what to do in this

  • Some people actually have a mental illness. When we paint a broader picture then we diminish the actual suffering some people experience.

  • I’m not validating distrust, they don’t like being lorded or told, neither because that’s nerve-wracking because psychology shaped their ethics.

    In summary, doubling worries while worries percieved are potential compulsions which validate paranoia which are potentially nerve-wracking causing or justifying (validating) painfully nervous.

    Depression=suppression/suppressed. Fear/nervousness of/about charisma, criticism (hopelessness, hopeful)

    “Obsolete,” racist roads travelled, 1880s 189… (Subtle, unidentifiable flying objects’) twilight zone relevance

    PS the philosopher’s stone is genitalia dilemmas because of the need for greed and power expression regarding or revolving like considering balance for and about stability like the sun-moon orbit. Languages are expression conveyed about perceptions.

    Hence videogames, no longer violent, in the future, likely. So expression using media outlets, I guess.

    Racist roads travelled, highways pave rightly over them, I guess.

    Did I beat religiously applied psychology misunderstanding too, apparently?

    I’m not validating distrust (though I did to see,) they don’t like being lorded or told, neither because that’s nerve-wracking because psychology shaped their ethics.

  • Any Doctor who prescribed addictive medication….especially to children is NO BETTER than a drug dealer on the street and should be arrested

  • I think there needs to be a correctionIn psychology, it would be called the “biopsychosocial model” not the biopsychological model.

  • Sir,meri ak mansik bimari hai jab koi bolta hai to Sunai deta hai per samjh me nahi aata hai ki kya bol raha hai

    Mai YouTube ke video dekhta hu to sound sunai deta hai per samjh me nahi aata hai ki kya bol raha hai
    Aur video ka koi content bhi nahi samjh pata hu

    Plz sir iss mansik rog ka name bataye plz

  • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD):
    The child must exhibit 4 out of the 8 signs and symptoms listed below in order to meet the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic threshold for oppositional defiant disorder
    Actively refuses to comply with majority’s requests or consensus-supported rules
    Performs actions deliberately to annoy others
    Angry and resentful of others
    Argues often
    Blames others for his or her own mistakes
    Often loses temper
    Spiteful or seeks revenge
    Touchy or easily annoyed

    Seriously?