3 Functional Health Tests Everybody Must Have


A Functional Medicine Approach to Blood Test Analysis

Video taken from the channel: Synapse: Center for Health & Healing


Understanding Jugular Venous Pressure (JVP)

Video taken from the channel: Zero To Finals


Liver Function Test Interpretation (LFTs) | Liver Enzymes Remastered (Bilirubin, GGT, Alk Phos)

Video taken from the channel: MedCram Medical Lectures Explained CLEARLY


Liver Function Tests (LFTs) Explained Clearly by MedCram.com

Video taken from the channel: MedCram Medical Lectures Explained CLEARLY


ACL Return-to-Play Hop Test Cluster

Video taken from the channel: Physiotutors


Sensitivity and specificity explained in 3 minutes

Video taken from the channel: Global Health with Greg Martin


Do More Screening Tests Lead to Better Health? Choosing Wisely

Video taken from the channel: DocMikeEvans

Ask your physician to test for all vitamins, minerals, ferritin, blood glucose, cholesterol profile and endocrine (hormone) markers. Knowing if your cortisol is elevated, HDL is low, B12 is depleted, etc., is the best and most personalized health information you can gather. 3 Functional Tests You Need This Year. we can find and quench the inflammation to get you back to health. By also testing your omega 3 & 6 fatty acids, we can also determine if have the right balance to be preventing rather than promoting inflammatory damage. There are different hormone tests available depending on your health concerns and the stage of your reproductive life.

Dr. Nicola will select the hormone test that is best for you. Functional Adrenal Stress Profile (BioHealth Diagnostics) – this saliva test measures cortisol and DHEA, two of the major hormones put out by the adrenal glands. During this test, have the client sit with her back touching the back of the chair.

Now ask the client to stand from the seated position, counting aloud every rep. Stop the test when the patient can get five reps of sit-to-stands. Scoring: age norms * Age 60-69: 11.4 seconds * Age 70-79: 12.6 seconds * Age 80-89: 14.8 seconds.

3. Functional. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that all adults over the age of 35 have their cholesterol checked every 5 years. Screening should begin at 20 years of age if you have. A Whole New Paradigm of Wellness.

I n the literal sense, FUNCTIONAL HEALTH (FH) is about your muscles, bones, joints, nerves, and everything else that’s responsible for your physical ability to move. It’s your mechanical well-being. But what Functional Health is really about is optimizing your ability to do the activities that you need to do and that you want to do, without being hampered. A colonoscopy is a test where a doctor uses a camera to scan your colon for cancerous polyps.

A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue. After the age of 50, you should get a colonoscopy every. Thyroid function, most doctors will only measure TSH, but if you have trouble losing weight, fatigue or the many other thyroid symptoms that you can read about here, it is essential to also test T4, T3, reverse T3 and the thyroid antibodies. If you have a family history of Hashimoto’s it is essential to get your antibodies tested.

The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test will determine if you have a problem. If your results are off the mark: Your doctor may order the more specific free T3 and free T4 follow-up tests. If you’re lucky you may also get an X-ray, a treadmill stress test, echocardiogram, Doppler sonogram of your carotid arteries, and an Endopat test to assess your blood vessels.

There are an additional 5 critical tests which are often overlooked and need to be considered for a more comprehensive assessment of your overall health.

List of related literature:

These include mental health, depression, anxiety, somatisation, pain, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, self-care, health risk and health screening, among others.

“How To Do Primary Care Research” by Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Robert Mash
from How To Do Primary Care Research
by Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Robert Mash
CRC Press, 2018

Many of these needs are intrinsic to the evaluation of health promotion programmes in real-world settings.

“Evaluation in Health Promotion: Principles and Perspectives” by I. Rootman, Michael Goodstadt, World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe
from Evaluation in Health Promotion: Principles and Perspectives
by I. Rootman, Michael Goodstadt, World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe
World Health Organization, Europe, 2001

Other, more reliable tests should also be included.

“Medical Education: Theory and Practice E-Book” by Tim Dornan, Karen V. Mann, Albert J J A Scherpbier, John A. Spencer
from Medical Education: Theory and Practice E-Book
by Tim Dornan, Karen V. Mann, et. al.
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011

Most of these assessments are familiar to health care providers, but a few are somewhat unique to balance assessment.

“Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology E-Book” by Howard M. Fillit, Kenneth Rockwood, John B Young
from Brocklehurst’s Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology E-Book
by Howard M. Fillit, Kenneth Rockwood, John B Young
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2016

This could include renal function tests, cardiac assessment, hemogram, immunity testing for hepatitis and rubella, blood type, Rh and antibody testing, and the offer of HIV testing.

“Clinical Maternal-Fetal Medicine” by Hung N. Winn, John C. Hobbins
from Clinical Maternal-Fetal Medicine
by Hung N. Winn, John C. Hobbins
Taylor & Francis, 2000

Researchers found that handbook users were significantly more likely to receive “all three kinds of medical tests and … information on five or more health education topics,” even after adjusting for confounders (Kitabayashi et al., 2017, p. 2161).

“Crossing the Global Quality Chasm: Improving Health Care Worldwide” by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, Board on Health Care Services, Board on Global Health, Committee on Improving the Quality of Health Care Globally
from Crossing the Global Quality Chasm: Improving Health Care Worldwide
by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, et. al.
National Academies Press, 2019

3 What tests would you recommend for a very unfit client who is otherwise healthy?

“The Essential Guide to Fitness” by Rosemary Marchese, Julie Taylor, Kirsten Fagan
from The Essential Guide to Fitness
by Rosemary Marchese, Julie Taylor, Kirsten Fagan
Cengage Learning Australia, 2019

Essential Diagnostics These include blood chemistries, hepatic and renal studies, thyroid studies, complete blood count, syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection screen, and alcohol and drug testing.

“Primary Care E-Book: A Collaborative Practice” by Terry Mahan Buttaro, Patricia Polgar-Bailey, Joanne Sandberg-Cook, JoAnn Trybulski
from Primary Care E-Book: A Collaborative Practice
by Terry Mahan Buttaro, Patricia Polgar-Bailey, et. al.
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2019

We examined five key preventive services recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force for appropriate age and gender groups: receipt of blood pressure and cholesterol screening, flu shot, Pap smear, mammogram, and dental check.

“Vulnerable Populations in the United States” by Leiyu Shi, Gregory Stevens
from Vulnerable Populations in the United States
by Leiyu Shi, Gregory Stevens
Wiley, 2010

Twelve panels of tests are commonly performed for definitive testing: basic metabolic, electrolyte, comprehensive metabolic, general health, obstetric, hepatic function, hepatitis, lipids, arthritis, TORCH antibody, thyroid, and thyroid with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

“Mastering Medical Coding E-Book” by Marsha Diamond
from Mastering Medical Coding E-Book
by Marsha Diamond
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013

Alexia Lewis RD

Registered Dietitian Nutritionist and Certified Heath Coach who believes life is better with science, humor, and beautiful, delicious, healthy food.

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  • I have not seen that side hop test before or thought to perform vertical jump. I’ve seen a few that look at triple hop for distance, triple hop for time and crossover triple hop. Due to space requirements, I’m not a fan of those and may try these out

  • I disagree when it comes to more testing. Obviously you wouldnt want a PSA test when you are 26 but you should consider an NMR, GGE, TGE or VAP test (no longer available) if you have family history of heart disease or diabetes as a basic lipid panel is inaccurate 65% of the time. Also with just a TSH or Vit D 25 OH you’re getting a small portion of a MUCH bigger picture. If you are a doctor that just needs time for a 5-8 minute consultation so you can reach your bonus with your ACO then basic screening makes sense at the expense of your patient. Imagine saving a life with more testing versus trying to convince people that there’s nothing wrong. You risk more credibility and risk more financial benefits from your patient who could’ve been helped with an LP(a) or HDL2b or ApoA1 test. Now your patient is dead and you passed on multiple years of flu shots, referrals, testing, etc. You shouldn’t look at it as just being financially beneficial but also rewarding as a care giver.I love your videos and I find them very informative as well as greatly well made. But I will say that Canada yanked Vit D testing which has been linked to heart disease in multiple studies so its probably better if you don’t find it necessary in most cases.

  • I agree, you shouldn’t be getting tests done if you are at low risk. These screenings can cause more harm the patient especially if they are misdiagnose. Ther is no reason to be tested for things if they don’t even apply to you.

  • Great video. Question: Some school’s of thought have you add 5cm to the total measurement, because that is the approximate distance from the sternal angle to the center of the atria. Is this just an old practice, that isn’t done routinely? I ask, because I don’t see it as often, but if the way the number is reported isn’t standardized, you would have a lot of artificially inflated findings.

    Also, just to mention quickly, it is known as hepatojugular reflux, rather then reflex, as an FYI. Fantastic video.

  • I agree that preventative health and teaching patients how to care for themselves properly is more efficient than taking the time to do so many screenings on a regular basis that have ample room for false positives. Not only do these tests cost a lot, but receiving a false positive can cause unneeded stress and panic in patients. If someone is at a high risk for developing cancer, heart disease, diabetes etc., I think there should be relatively regular screenings to make sure all is well, but it is also the patient’s responsibility to take care of themselves and also monitor their own health along with the help of their doctor. To create a better working and more accurate health system, patients must be willing comply to doctors orders for preventative health measures, and doctors must be willing to get to know their patients’ histories and risks for developing certain ailments.

  • Thank you for sharing this video,it really helps & Motivate me.i went through ACL & Meniscus Surgery on 17-Jan-2020 and also shared all my experience from Day 0 on my youtube channel(bluerays,click on bluerays text near my photo).almost completed 5 months and creating roadmap for back to sport. Please watch if time allows you & share your feedback to me.Sharing our experience that helps other gives the truly amazing feelings..Thank you much again, keep Moving & Stay Fit!!!

  • I believe that the amount of screening should no be increased. Many can result in false positives causing patients to undergo unnecessary procedures. However if one does have family history of a disease know to be passed on, the test required to check for this disease should be given.

  • I love these videosDr Seheult is incredible. I dont know who added subtitles to this but they are really annoyinginaccurate with a ton of mistakes and clearly not a medical person writing them.

  • Hi Greg, Amazingly explained in simple words. Fantastic! Would you please recommend any other 3-minute video of yours or others on Negative and Postive Predicted value. This i couldnt understand from the last one minute of yours. Thank you!!!

  • A wave Atrial Contraction Atrial pressure rises
    X descent RelaXation of RA, ventricles shrink and allows the atrium to fill in!
    C Closure of Tricuspid valve at the start of systolic contraction
    V Villing(filling) of Ra as atria relax slight rise in JVP
    Y Triscuspid opens EmptYing RA

  • Sensitivitytests positive correctly/all people positive -TPC/APP
    Specificity-tests negative correctly/all people negative-TNC/APN
    Positive predictive valuetests positive correctly/tests positive-TPC/TP
    Negative predictive value-tests negative correctly/tests negative-TNC/TN

  • This was very easy to understand, I had a lecture this morning about sensitivity, specificity and PPV and NPV it was unclear now I understand it clearly. Thank you

  • Not really understanding this if there is a blockage of the ability to excrete, why is it that the direct bili goes up? It just seems like intuitively it should be the opposite. If the liver cannot conjugate and/or excrete, then why does it go up? Seems like the unconjugated would go up.

  • I think this issue is very important in healthcare right now. Especially since the new recommendations went into place for women getting mammograms. However from previous knowledge and the information provided in this video I do think screening should not be increased, unless there are previous risks, or knowledge of family members that have had diseases that could be passed on, or of course if the person chooses to have them done based on personal beliefs. There are so many false positives that can occur, which can lead to unnecessary treatments that could put stress on a person. Unless these false positive problems are fixed with new technologies, I think screenings should either be lessened or continued as they are now. I do see how recommended screenings by a doctor can improve the patient-doctor relationship, however I think this can be done in other ways too. If we start focusing on prevention more and lifestyle changes, many of these diseases the screenings check for would probably decrease.

  • I understand why doctors would lessen the amount of tests patients are receiving because of all of the false positives and inaccurate reading they are receiving, but I believe each patient is different. Like DocMikeEvans said each patient needs there own set of testings. If a patient has a high risk of breast cancer in their family, of course they should be tested more regularly than a patient who does not have high breast cancer in their family. I believe each patient should be treated as an individual, if the testings make the patient more comfortable and worry less, than they should stick with the regular screenings and testings. If the patent does not have any symptoms or any family genetic make up for the disease, and have a good peace of mind about not getting tested, then they should be able to chose to have less testings. With this kind of communication, patient-doctor relationships will become stronger. Communication is key, and it matters how the patient feels. If they believe they have control over their bodies, and can work along side their doctor they will feel more comfortable with decisions made.

  • Thanks a ton, very precise and simple way of presentation. It’s been years I have been searching for such simple stuff. What’s the software you use for the animations?

  • I had jaundice almost 2 years from now i went for a proper medical checkup and did every thing to cure it. I avoided oily and fatty foods. I only ate salads. I took every medicine until the tests showed Normal. But then when I repeated the test a month after it again showed bilirubin out of the normal range.This hapenned many times that year and in the end Doc. said that” you have Gilberts Syndrome…and all of this is normal for people wth GS.” For now I am assuming that I have Gilberts synd. Moreover, what i realize is that the bilirubin level in my blood increases whenever i have an illness like fever or headache,stress(during exams),during fasting (in the month of ramadhan).Now i want to know if I really have GS or not and i will be so glad if You help me in this.

  • I would also note that Texas Governor Gregg Abbott put into place Abbott’s law which has helped advanced lab companies as he himself had a relative pass away even though there was advanced testing that couldve helped diagnose the problem earlier and/or prevent the loss but his PCP refused to do it for fear of losing money as part of his agreement with an ACO

  • I just found I got low liver function but the Dr wasn’t to clear im confused can some body explained. Not the Dr on the video but the Dr who read my blood results

  • Thank you, like the few minutes explanation to the topic,, thank you
    Can you relate to what the positive and negative predictive value of the test will add to our explanation of the sp and sn of the test. I believe in your style (simple and clear)

  • As an emergency medicine PA-C, with plans to go into academia later in my career, I appreciate your videos for review of general medical knowledge. The videos are engaging and the material is very well explained. I’ve directed PA students of mine to your videos to help them in their studies and to help understand laboratory and physical exam findings while on their clinical rotations with me. Keep up the great work! Your videos are invaluable to me.

  • I have also looked at many videos to understand sensitivity and specificity and yours by far was the simplest and easiest to understand! Thank you so very much!

  • These are very helpful for me as a PA student. Videos help me understand much more than books do, so this is perfect. Nice and clear.

  • If I tested positive for gonorrhea, forgetting skewing inputs ie did I visit a whorehouse yesterday? etc., wouldn’t the ratio of concern be false positives/all people positive. In your example, 3/704.3 %chance the test is false? This would seem a more clinically relevant measure.

  • Ref. range of my AST is 38, ALT is 55 and AFP is 15.
    Based on the lab. test I’m Hepatitis B e Antigen Reactive
    By March 28, 2015, I was scheduled for my blood test enterpretation with my doctor.
    Anyone can help me to understand these? really needs your help.

    (sorry for my bad english)

  • I don’t believe that more screening test leads to you have a better health. Why get a test done if you don’t have too? Isn’t this just a waste of time and money?  If your doctor is constantly giving you screenings and comparing you to the average person, than you need to truly reconsider your doctor. Everyone is different and has different genetics and environment that might affect what their health is. Being compared to the average person, almost everyone should not be the same. Some screening tests are pointless. Like an example would be a person who has never smoked in their life getting a chest x-ray done. What’s the point of this? If there is no logic to have a screening done, than it shouldn’t be given. In all reality, I feel that the more screenings that you have done on you, the worst off you might actually  be. A person who is diagnosed with a bunch of different elements might have a poor self esteem after finding this out. Or they might be put on a bunch of medications that they don’t need or that might even interact with each other. So, I’m a firm believer that you don’t need a bunch of screening tests done.

  • I personally feel the more screening tests, the better. Screening tests help to catch early signs of health issues and they are great for providing peace at mind for patients. Early detection, along with treatment, can produce better outcomes and lower the risk of dangerous or severe complications. In the case of mammograms, women who receive false positives and have invasive procedures and further tests should be more relieved than upset when they find out they do not have cancer. I would much rather be safe then sorry. As for women who received false negatives, they would’ve most likely received a false negative if it was a normal screening test or if they were looking for breast cancer specifically. It is certainly unfortunate that many tests have false negatives and false positives, but not giving screening test at all won’t make those issues disappear AND it will put symptom-less people with major diseases at high risk of not detecting them early enough.

  • See the whole series at http://www.medcram.com along with other top quality videos including reviews in pulmonary, cardiology, infectious disease, and hematology!

  • Great, clear, conscience explanation. I’m glad you took the time to explain the difference between the predictive values and sensitivity without over complicating it.

  • This is the most straight forward, easy and simplest explanation that I have found thus far…THANK YOU SO MUCH! I figured it out in the first minute let alone in 3. Why can’t my lecturers be this simple

  • If there is a blockage in the intra and extra hepatic ducts, and the conjugated bilirubin is excreted through these, wouldn’t there be less conjugated bilirubin floating around the bloodstream and not more? Thank you:)

    Also if you would ever consider getting someone (or perhaps yourself) to transcribe your lectures for subtitles, myself and the whole deaf medical community would greatly appreciate it! Thank you:)

  • Thanks for explaining LFT test. I am doing reserch on Liver detox, Which test can make me clear that my liver detox is working or no?
    Can you or anyone please help me.

  • Hello,

    I know you can’t diagnose anything, but I would really respect your opinion.

    My ALT is 113 (normal is 10-63) AST and ALP normal.

    Had an ultrasound done, came back showing a mildly enlarged spleen at 13.47cm, and my liver is showing fatty liver. It also showed bile ducts were normal.

    All my CBC is normal.

    My Total bilirubin is 3.2 (normal is 1.5), and direct being 0.3 (normal). So that means my indirect is causing my high bilirubin.

    LDH was actually a little low at 100 (normal was 120-250).

    Since hemolysis is pretty much ruled out, do you think this is a case of Gilbert’s Sydrome?

  • Thank you very much….you explained so simply, I was worried about this topic.You help me a lot. May Allah bless you with all His blessings

  • Do I need to fast before a liver function test? I fasted for 12 hours before a liver function test 3 weeks ago and my ALT was 57. Today I didn’t fast and my ALT was 114! Is this because I didn’t fast? I haven’t had any alcohol, and am eating a very clean diet for the last 3 weeks.

  • Have an eldest mean brother at the top of chemical supervisory field, not to name the other significant daughter of your ex. That’s how. You get ‘sand’ in your secretion. The ex knows all about mind controlling. Work it!

  • From this information, in my opinion more screening tests does not lead to better health. Many of these screening tests can lead to false alarms and put people through various procedures they don’t need because they thought there was a problem. Because there is a chance for false alarms, and people having procedures done they don’t need could worsen their health. These false alarms create stress about one’s health not better it. For example, Dr. Evans mentions Mammograms, ECG screenings, Vitamin D screenings and more. We all know that mammograms lead to false alarms of breast cancer so how could mammograms lead to better health. Yes having early or multiple mammograms could detect cancer early enough to treat it but it can also misdiagnose a woman who never had anything to worry about until the false alarm came along. As for ECG screenings, those are very confusing as well. Resting ECG sends mixed messages, and they are also not recommended if you are a low risks for heart disease. Why have a test done if you’re not at risk. More screening tests should only be done for people at higher risks with signs and symptoms. The 25 Hydroxy Vitamin D test has much debate about it because there isn’t an ideal Vitamin D level established for general population. The bottom line is with all these chances or misleading information form screening test more screening test just simply can’t lead to better health.
    I can agree more with the prevention visit every few years. Having a doctor that cares about ways to help you to prevent from becoming ill is better than one who just want to run many tests to make sure there isn’t anything wrong. Having a preventive lifestyle to change bad habits to lower risks of developing anything is better for the patient. It focuses on how the patient feels, and their values because every patient is different. Prevention visits lead to better health. Less test are better because through all the prevention visits the patient’s health is getting better overtime which indicates there are no high risks for certain things which leads to less tests. There would specifically be no need for any screenings unless a major sign or symptoms arose.

  • Hello, 
    i thought that the urine got its concentrated yellow colour from some bilirubin that passed through. Wouldn’t that make urine bilirubin levels a bit high? 

  • Hello madam
    Iam 19 year male.1 year back (4th June 2019) l had got my ACL surgery still I can’t able to run. Please give any suggestions.iam a volleyball player.

  • Please, can you write the words you say because we follow you from all over the various languages ​​and that is why we wish to write the words so that we can read and understand

  • Thank you so much. You make it easy to understand. I love your drawings and your voice. My GI doc does not draw as well. He explains well and is on my side. I’m at the top of the list for a new liver. 3points on Monday towards my MELD score!!!!!

  • Hi, many thanks for your brilliant videos, exceptionally good explanations.
    Do you have any chance to explain how to do data analysis, particularly how to select appropriate tests like chi-square, t-test, paired t-test, anova etc.?

  • thank you for making this video.. it helps me a lot on my exam tomorrow.. may I ask if you could make a lecture about the bilirubin metabolism?? please.. thank you!! more powers!

  • I am doing a case study for health care ethics. In our case studying we are talking about the newborn screening tests on infants when they are born. I looked into it and the case of the one test could save only 4 lives in a year on average. Its not always a hundred percent that the test will be accurate. that being said, sometimes there is misdiagnosis. In certain cases, people become overly stressed for something that they might not even have. In other cases, people could receive negative results for something that should be positive. Overall though, theres nothing wrong with screening tests. Early detection saves so many lives.

  • Great video! One question: when you talk about back pressure into the IJV, you don’t mention (and you are not alone in this) the valve that is known to exist in most people. Can I assume that all explanations are still, essentially, applicable, as high pressure below the valve will keep it closed longer against the accumulating distal pressure?

  • Wow, really useful. This video really solved my confusion why choose (TP+FN) as the denominator of sensitivity. “So, that, it’s not affected by the prevalence of the specific disease.” Thank you!!!

  • Thank you for your useful video.I have a question please let me lnow if you know the answer.What is the meaning of Specifity in multi confusion matrix., in 3*3 matrix for example

  • please I want to ask my Left AST value is 19 range is 1050 U/L and the ALT 9(L) 1050 U/L what is that suppose to mean I’m Chronicaly effected which HBv and takin medication thank you

  • Thanks for the video, its great and i have a clear concept on LFT now.

    just wanted to make some corrections. If i am wrong let me know:

    -gilbert syndrome is autosomal recessive (not dominant)
    -Extravascular hemolysis causes an increase in Indirect bilirubin. (not intravascular. intravascular causes hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria. extravascular hemolysis results in breakdown of the heme into unconjugated bilirubin)

  • Hey,

    I think this link would be interesting for you.

    Good luck,

  • Thank you sooooo much for doing these lectures. I referred to your lectures while I was working on my NP degree. Now I am working in Gastroenterology and your lectures are really helping me to pull all of this info together! I really reallllly appreciate you for sharing your knowledge and making the subject matter understandable in a very unique way. I don’t know if you will read this but thanks for all you do!

  • It was a nice explanatory video, but what happens if we reverse the disease and test axis… like disease on y axis and test on x axis… would the things be the same?? Kindly explain this big query of mine.

  • Dare I ask? Oh, why not…  please consider an episode explaining Direct & Indirect Standardization. Thank you sir. Love your channel!

  • Thank you for this video, I am worry becouse I have “cyst” in the liver; I have a test in the emergency room when they are looking for some apendicitis; when I when to my family dr. she said is not important. Can you explain me why I have this ( what I am eating o medicine take it to cause it) and how to fix it without surgery? I really apreciate it. thank you

  • I personally think that the amount of tests patients receive should be lowered. There are to many unnecessary test done that in the end may end up just scaring patients. Such as the Breast cancer test mentioned, there are false positives to many tests and in some cases patients are such low risks for diseases that unless there are symptoms the test isn’t needed. If there is a family history or and indications then the doctor should definitely recommend these tests, but other than that I agree with the vide more is not always better. Between false positives and even in some cases a misdiagnosis these tests can be causing more harm than good to the patient. The stress from waiting for results to a wrongful diagnosis of something such as breast cancer can turn a patients life upside down. The specific tests mentioned all have a good amount of false positives, so until the tests are more accurate they should not be done unless they are completely necessary.

  • My liver test Total Serum Bilirubin 3.9 (Serum Bilirubin Direct 0.5 & Bilirubin Indirect 3.5) what kind of virus i am affected with? is it a bile damage? or Liver damage?

  • Gilbert disease is a disease associated with decreased UPTAKE of unconjugated bilirubin.

    What you are talking about, is called Dubin Johnson disease.
    the third one is called Crigler-Najaar, it is deficient excretion of the bilirubin, leading to elevated bilirubin in the blood.

  • could you please do more on CXR’s? I am by myself on ICU and Some nursing homes, still having difficulties in reading. If you please do for chest CT’s and abdominal CT’s.

  • all my liver enzymes are 4 times elevated than normal, i have done most of the tests under the planet -ct abdo,fibroscan, ultrasound, gastroscopy and colonoscopy they are normal, all blood tests are normal including cholestrol,serum studies and antibibodies test any idea whats the cause for it, i rarely drink alcohol

  • I agree that certain testing should be limited depending on the patient. However, I also agree that thorough testing does build a better relationship between physician and patient. If the patient feels like they are being well taken care of it will improve their attitude and overall experience when visiting a physician. For example, if a patient has gone through various testing, there is a good chance that they will listen to their doctor if he or she recommends making changes to improve life quality whether or not the tests came back positive or negative.
    It also depends on the patient to a certain extent. Some people will want full testing done and others might not want to in fear of a false positive because at the time they feel fine. It comes down to relationships and communication. A great physician will know how to cater to their patients and make decisions that will not only keep them healthy but also produce the best level of well-being.

  • Just when I thought I was facing rubbish-throwing nursing/midwifery/paramedic students tomorrow (again).. predictably Greg Martin comes up with the perfect <3min explanation of Sensitivity, Specificity, PPV and NPV and most importantly the difference! Which is nearly nowhere else! Thanks again! You feature prominently in my Epidemiology lectures.

  • My ALT is 32 and my AST is 24.. But my ALP is 137.. Apparently they didn’t test my GGT.. Should I be concerned about the ALP being elevated?

  • Anfangssymptom: Fieber über 40 Grad, es ist ähnlich bei akuter Gastroenteritis, Erbrechen, Durchfall, Hämafecia; Der Appetitverlust, deprimiert.
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    Die Inkubationszeit beträgt etwa 7 bis 14 Tage.
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  • Medcram, I had my liver function test done last week with my annual physical. Everything came back normal except my bilirubin, total bilitubin was 1.2 (normal is up to 1.0) and direct bilirubin was 0.20(normal is up to 0.18) what would be the cause?

  • I found this very informative and helpful in my preparation for my university exam

    Until you said not to do drugs, then you really lost me.

  • Super sir..i was worried y m not understanding qhen i read..but by c ing ur video i ts very easy to understand…tq for the video..pls keep doing these work..

  • You make it so easy to understand. 11 minutes of listening and watching this video was better than an hour and a half of an egotistical lecture. I will look for more to reinforce other lectures.

  • Thank you! I appreciate your time and effort! The narration was slow steady and moderate fluctuations with voice. Picturing was nice which goes along with the components of narration. Overall I liked it. Thank you sir!

  • Thank you so much for this amazing video! Very straight-forward way of explaining a concept that is is otherwise presented in a different language in class:) The differentiation between sensitivity/specificity and +/predictive value: Extremely helpful; never thought about it like that. Thank you!!!

  • Hallo… Thank you. Your videos is excellent. But could you make it slowly. You are so fast so I cannot hear and difficult to understand clearly

  • Excellent video Zero to Finals. At 3:03 in your video, you referred to hepatojugular reflux as reflex by mistake. “Reflux” would better describe what happens with that manouvre. It might be worth noting it in the comments. Keep up the excellent content and thank you for uploading this video.